Myelodysplastic Syndromes Flashcards Preview

Hematology Module 2 > Myelodysplastic Syndromes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1

Group of acquired clonal hematologic disorder that affect maturation of erythroid, myeloid, and or megakaryocytic lines. PROGRESSIVE PB CYTOPENIAS (MAY EVENTUALLY PROGRESS TO AML)

Myelodysplastic Syndromes

2

Mechanism of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Hypomethylation of DNA followed by hypermethylation of DNA

3

MDS peripheral blood findings

- cytopenias
- anemia (normochromic normocytic or macrocytic anemia)
- dysplasia

4

MDS bone marrow findings

- Hypercellular
- Dysplasia
- ineffective hematopoiesis
- M:E ratio decreased

5

Is flow cytometry and cytogenetics diagnostic for MDS?

NO! important for providing prognostic risks and therapy but not diagnostic

6

Criteria for calling a ringed sideroblasts in the erythrocyte line

at least 5 iron granules that circle at least 1/3 of the nucleus

7

What are the most common lab findings in MDS?

macrocytic or normocytic anemia (with low retics)

8

MDS may present with _____ _____ RBCs but still have normal iron stores

microcytic hypochromic

9

MDS may present with megaloblastoid cellular development but still have _______ vit B12and folate values

normal

10

Most common myelodysplastic Syndromes (3)

1. Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts (RAEB-1 and 2)
2. Refractory Cytopenia with Multilineage Dysplasia
3. Refractory Cytopenia with Unilineage Dysplasia

11

PB Blasts in RAEB-1

12

PB Blasts in RAEB-2

5-19%

13

BM Blasts in RAEB-1

5-9%

14

BM Blasts in RAEB-2

10-19%

15

Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Isolated Del(5q)
- what deletion
- predominantly in what sex?
- what anemia is characteristic

- deletion of a 5q presumed tumor suppressor gene
- women
- macrocytic

16

RARS - refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts

more than 15% of BM erythroid precursors are ringed sideroblasts

17

How do you distinguish Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms from CML?

BCR-ABL1 Negative

18

one specific type of a Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

19

How do you score the prognosis for a myelodysplastic syndrome?

The International Prognosic scoring system IPSS

20

The International Prognosic scoring system IPSS
- good and bad scores

0 to 2 and the higher number is bad

21

Treatment: Myelodysplastic Syndrome

lenalidomide and farnesyltransferase inhibitors

22

Cure for MDS
- what score and age to receive "cure"

Stem Cell Transplant
- score greater than 2
- less than 70 years old