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Flashcards in Cardiac embryo Deck (83):
1

Paradoxical emboli

ASD, patent foramen ovale

2

Formed by AP septum and endocardial cushions

Membranous part of ventricular septum

2

Fossa ovalis

Remnant of foramen ovale

3

Steps in atrial septation

Septum primum grows toward enodcardial cushions --> formamen primum closes --> formen secundum formed in septum primum --> septum secundum forms --> covers most of foramen secundum --> residual foramen is foramen ovale --> remaining portion of septum primum forms valve of foramen ovale --> spetum secundum and primum fuse to form atrial septum --> foramen ovale closes after birth

3

Congenital rubella

PDA, pulmonary artery stenosis, septal defects

4

Marfan

Aortic regurg, thoracic aortic dissection/aneurysm, MVP

5

Umbilical arteries

Medial umbilical ligament

5

Ligamentum teres hepatis

Remnant of umbilical vein (contained in falciform ligament)

5

Bicuspid aortic valve

Turner syndrome

5

Aortic regurg

Marfan

6

Atrial septum

Fusion of septum primum and septum secundum

6

VSD

FAS

7

Where does EPO take place in a neonate?

Bone marrow; liver stops producing at birth

7

Why does PGE2 decrease after birth, precipitating closure of the foramen ovale?

Placental separation

7

Down syndrome

ASD (ostium secundum)

VSD

AV valve defect (endocardial cushion defect)

7

Diabetic mom

Transposition of great vessels

8

Why does fetal hemoglobin have a much higher affinity for oxygen?

Less avid binding of 2,3-BPG

9

Rx to close PDA

Indomethacin (inhibits PG-mediated patency)

10

Preductal coarctation of aorta

Turner syndrome

12

Primitive atria

Trabeculated part of atria

13

Pulmonary artery stenosis, PDA, septal defects

Congenital rubella

14

Trabeculated part of ventricles

Primitive ventricles

14

Transposition of great vessels

Diabetic mom

15

Rx to keep patent forman ovale 

PGE2

16

SVC

Right common cardinal vein and left anterior cardinal vein

16

Steps in ventricular septation

Muscular septum forms --> creates interventricular septum --> AP septum forms and creates membranous portion of interventricular septum --> endocardial cushions separate ventricles from atria and contribute to membranous part of interventricular foramen and atrial septum

17

Forms valves

Endocardial cushions

19

Right horn on sinus venosus

Smooth part of right atrium

20

Separates atria and ventricles

Endocardial cushion

20

Turner syndrome

Bicuspid aortic valve, preductal coarctation of aorta

22

Neural crest

Endocardial cushions

23

Fusion of septum primum and septum secundum

Atrial septum

24

MVP

Marfan

26

Smooth part of right atrium

Right horn of sinus venosus

27

PDA

Congenital rubella

28

Remnant of umbilical vein

Ligamentum teres hepatis (contained in falciform ligament)

29

Bicuspid aortic valve, preductal coarctation of aorta

Turner syndrome

30

Allantois

Median umbilical ligament/urachus

31

Forms membranous part of ventricular septum

Formed by AP septum and endocardial cushions

31

Urachal cysts form from allanotic duct between bladder and umbilicus

31

5 congential anomalies causing cyanosis at birth

1. Truncus arteriosus

2. Transposition

3. Tricuspid atresia

4. Tetralogy of Fallot

5. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

32

Most common cause of PDA

Congenital rubella

34

What forms the foramen ovale?

Septum secundum covering most of foramen secundum in septum primum

35

Pulmonary artery stenosis

Congenital rubella

37

What causes patent foramen ovale?

Failure of septum primum and secundum to fuse after birth

38

When does infant switch from producing mostly fetal hemoglobin to mostly adult?

~6 weeks

39

Medial umbilical ligament

Umbilical arteries

40

When does infant hemoglobin proportions reach adult status?

10 months

40

Two mediators of foramen ovale closure

Increased O2 and decreased prostaglandin E2

41

Smooth (outflow) part of both ventricles

Bulbus cordis

42

Smooth part of left atrium

Primitive pulmonary vein

43

Where is the first place EPO takes place in fetus? When?

Yolk sac; 3 weeks

44

Right common cardinal vein + left anterior cardinal vein

SVC

46

Bulbus cordis

Smooth (outflow) part of both ventricles

47

VSD most commonly associated with:

FAS

48

Heart beats spontaneously by:

4th week

49

Tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus

22q11 syndromes

51

Urachus

Part of allantoic duct between bladder and umbilicus

52

EPO in liver

6 weeks-birth

53

22q11 syndromes

Truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot

55

Ebstein's anomaly

Tricupsid valve leaflets displace toward apex of right ventricle while annulus is in same position

57

Name the three fetal shunts

Forman ovale

Ductus venosus

Ductus arteriosus

58

Coronary sinus

Left horn of sinus venosus

60

EPO in yolk sac

3-8 weeks

61

Formed by endocardial cushions

Septum between atria and ventricles, part of membranous interventricular septum, part of atrial septum

62

Acyanotic or cyanotic at birth:

VSD

Acyanotic (left-to-right shunt)

64

Primitive pulmonary vein

Smooth part of left atrium

65

Notochord

Nucleus pulposus

67

Fetal blood flow

Placenta --> umbilical vein --> ductus venosus --> IVC --> heart -->  foramen ovale --> aorta 

 

 

SVC --> RA --> RV --> pulmonary atery --> ductus arteriousus --> aorta

68

Median umbilical ligament

Allantois

 

(Urachus is part of allantoic duct between bladder and umbilicus)

69

MVP, aortic regurg, thoracic aortic dissection/aneurysm

Marfan

70

Left horn of sinus venosus

Coronary sinus

72

Primitive ventricles

Trabeculated part of ventricles

73

Nucleus pulposus

Notochord

74

Thoracic aortic dissection/aneurysm

Marfan

76

Where is the most common location of a VSD?

Membranous part of ventricular septum

77

EPO in bone marrow

18 weeks to adult life

78

ASD, VSD, endocardial cusion/AV valve defects

Down syndrome

79

What keeps foramen ovale open?

PGE2

80

Failure of septum primum and secundum to fuse after birth

Patent foramen ovale

81

Trabeculated part of atria

Primitive atria

82

EPO in spleen 10-28 weeks

83

Forms septum between atria and ventricles, part of membranous interventricular septum, part of atrial septum

Endocardial cushions