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Flashcards in Random facts Deck (263):
1

X-ray effects on fetus

Microcephaly, intelletual disability

2

Scoliosis + high or flat arches

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (loss of structural proteins for myelin sheath or peripheral nerve function)

 

Freidrich ataxia (no frataxin = mitochondrial iron storage protein)

3

Increases level of 6-MP and azathioprine

Allopurinol (inhibits XO)

3

Action of teres minor

Adduction and lateral rotation of arm

3

Mitral regurgitation, multiple hamartomas, renal angiomyolipoma, seizures, mental retardation, increased incidence of subependymal astrocytomas, ungal fibromas

Tuberous sclerosis

 

(+ cardiac rhabdomyomas, Shagreen patches, Ash-leaf spots)

4

Activating mutation of GNAQ gene

Sturge Weber

5

Flat, well-circumscribed lesion < 1 cm

Macule

6

Remnant of gubernaculum

Males - anchors testes in scrotum

 

Females - round ligament and ovarian ligament

7

Failure of genital tubercle to position properly

Epispadias

8

Increased thickness of stratum corneum with retention of nuclei

Parakeratosis

 

(psoriasis)

8

Pityriasis with herald patch and Christmas tree distribution

8

Pain to anterior 2/3 of tongue

V3

8

Which 3 areas of the brain have no BBB?

1. Area postrema - vomiting

2. OVLT - osmoregulation

3. Neurohypophysis - ADH release/osmoregulation

8

Sequence

Abnormalities result from a single primary embryological event (ex. Potter sequence)

9

Glabrous (hairless) skin info

Meissner corpuscle

10

Pain on external rotation of knee

Medial meniscus

10

What (besides HIV) increases the risk of developing PML?

Natalizumab (alpha-4 integrin used for AI d/o's)

 

(PML = JC virus reactivation)

10

Early-onset glaucoma

Sturge-Weber

11

Pain on internal rotation of knee

Lateral meniscus injury

11

Meissner corpuscle function

Dynamic, fine touch, position sense for glabrous (hairless) skin

11

Down and out eye with mydriasis

PCOM aneurysm

11

Congenital cause of Fanconi syndrome

Wilson disease

12

Defective osteoclasts

Osteopetrosis (CA deficiency)

13

3rd arch

Stylopharyngeus, CN IX

14

Osteoma of facial bones

Gardner syndrome

15

Vesicle containing pus

Pustule

16

5-FU rescue

Uridine

17

Keratoacanthoma - rapidly evolving SCC that may spontaneously involute

 

 

(Cup-shaped lesion filled with necrotic keratin debris)

18

Locked-in syndrome

Basilar artery stroke or central pontine myelinolysis

19

Perimysial inflammation

Dermatomyositis

19

Pityriasis

 

(all this crap will self-resolve within 6-8 weeks)

19

Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

Oxytocin

20

Destruction of this nucleus causes obesity

Ventromedial

21

Gottron patches

Dermatomyositis

22

Neurofibromin

Mutated TSG in NF1 = negative regulator of Ras

23

Cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules, pheochromocytomas, neurofibromas in skin, optic gliomas

NF1

24

Separation of epidermal cells

Acantholysis

24

Where is ADH made?

Supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus

25

Basal nucleus of Meynert

ACh synthesis

26

Broken down by XO

6-MP, azathioprine

27

Lateral rotation of arm

Infraspinatus (suprascapular N)

Teres minor (axillary N)

27

Loss of sensation over dorsal and palmar aspects of lateral 3 1/2 fingers

Median nerve (C5-T1)

27

Origin of upper 1/3 of vagina? Lower 2/3?

Upper 1/3 = paramesonephric ducts

Lower 2/3 = urogenital sinus

28

Two free nerve endings

C and A-delta fibers

28

Renal tubular defect that causes HTN + too much Na+

Liddle syndrome

 

(Overactive Na+ transport in collecting duct)

29

Keratoacanthoma

Rapidly progressive SCC of skin that may spontaneously regress within months

30

Actions of supraspinatus

Abducts arm initially before deltoid

31

Loss of eversion and dorsiflexion

Common peroneal (L4-S2)

33

Avascular necrosis risk after fracture

Scaphoid

33

Loss of sensation on sole of foot

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)

34

Schiller Duval body - yolk sac tumor

 

(look like glomeruli)

35

Optic glioma

NF1

36

Lichen planus is associated with:

HCV!!

37

Amifostine

Free radical scavenger that prevents nephrotoxicity with cisplatin

37

Where is GABA synthesized?

Nucleus accumbens

39

McMurray test

Medial/lateral meniscus injuries

 

Pain on external injury = medical meniscus

Pain on internal injury = lateral meniscus

40

Supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus

ADH

41

Ungal fibroma - tuberous sclerosis

42

Treatment of CNS tumors

Nitrosureas 

 

(carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin)

42

Dried exudate

Crust

42

Pigmented iris

NF1 (Lisch nodules)

43

Prognosis of pityriasis rosea

Self-limited, 6-8 weeks

44

Inhibits thymidylate synthase

5-FU

45

Action of infraspinatus

Laterally rotates arm

45

Port-wine stain of Sturge-Weber

47

Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase

Hydroxyurea

48

Space constant

Distance at which 37% of graded potential has disappeared

 

(Increased by myelination)

49

Slow pain/temp fibers

C fibers

 

(unmyelinated)

49

Ipsilateral tongue paralysis

Specific for Anterior spinal artery stroke

 

(CN XII + lateral corticospinal tract + medial lemniscus)

49

Treacher Collins syndrome

Failure of 1st branchial arch to develop

 

(mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities)

50

Used to ablate BM before transplant

Busulfan

 

(can cause hyperpigmentation and pulmonary fibrosis if used in actual patient)

51

Autoantibodies associated with dermatomyositis and polymyositis

Anti-Jo1, anti-SNP, anti-Mi-2

52

Risk with scaphoid fracture

Avascular necrosis

53

4 stages of Paget disease

1. Lytic = osteoclasts

2. Mixed = osteoclasts + osteoblasts

3. Sclerotic = osteoblasts

4. Quiescent = minimal activity

54

Large, myelinated, quickly adapting sensory corpuscles

Meissner corpuscle

Pacinian corpuscle

55

Pitching injury

Infraspinatus (suprascapular N)

 

(Can't laterally rotate or adduct as well)

56

Loss of interossei/abduction and adduction of fingers

Ulnar nerve (C8-T1)

56

Elevated solid lesion > 1 cm

Plaque

56

Effect of myelin on conduction

Increases space constant and velocity

56

Ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma (=epilepsy) + intellectual disability + espiscleral hemangioma

Sturge-Weber

57

Decreased thigh flexion and leg extension

Femoral nerve (L2-L4)

58

List the deep nuclei of the cerebellum from lateral to medial

Dentate, emboliform, globose, fastigial

(don't eat greasy food)

59

In utero exposure increasing risk for ADHD

Nicotine/CO

61

Posterior hip dislocation

Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1) and/or inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

61

Destruction of this nucleus causes anorexia

Lateral

62

Trauma to politeal fossa - which nerve and artery?

Tibial nerve and popliteal artery

62

Shagreen patches

Tuberous sclerosis

62

Cardiac rhabdomyoma

Tuberour sclerosis - blocks valves

64

Use for nitrosureas

CNS tumors

 

(carmustine, lomustine, streptozocin, semustine)

65

MRI on the right? 

(left is normal)

Dandy Walker

 

(No vermis + cystic dilation of 4th ventricle)

65

Basal epidermal layer + hair follicle info

Merkel disc

67

SERM for breast CA? Osteoporosis?

BCA - Tamoxifen

 

Osteoporosis - Raloxifene

68

Endomysial inflammation

Polymyositis

70

3 diseases predisposing to osteosarcoma

Paget disease

Retinoblastoma

Li-Fraumeni

72

Risk with hook of hamate fracture

Ulnar nerve injury

73

Erythema multiforme

 

(Target lesions - most commonly HSV, also mycoplasma, sulfas, beta-lactams, phenytoin, cancers, and autoimmune diseases)

73

Contralateral hemianopia with macular sparing

PCA stroke (wipes out occipital cortex)

73

Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortion

Vitamin A

75

Dexrazoxne

Chelates iron to prevent cardiomyopathy with doxorubicin

76

Facial nucleus lesion

Specific to AICA stroke = paralysis of face, no taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue (but can still feel it = V3), no lacrimation from submandibular/sublingual glands, no corneal reflex

78

Loss of sensation of dosrum of foot

Common peroneal nerve (L4-S2)

79

Varus stress

LCL injury

80

Childhood tumors

Dactinomycin

 

(Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor)

80

Congenital activation of epithelial Na+ channel

Liddle syndrome

81

Risk with lunate dislocation

CTS

82

Loss of sensation over dorsal hand

Radial nerve (C5-T1)

84

Decreased adduction of thigh

Obtruator (L2-L4)

85

Failure of 1st branchial arch to develop

Treacher Collins

86

Appendages in wrong location

Homeobox mutations

87

Tamoxifen vs raloxifene

Tamoxifen = agonist in endometrium and bone, antagnoist in breast

 

Raloxifene = antagonist in endometrium, agonist in bone, no action on breast

88

Palpate which landmark for pudendal nerve block during labor?

Ischial spine

88

Hard time getting up from seat

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

88

Leptin inhibits which nucleus of the hypothalamus?

Lateral, which stimulates hunger

90

Snuff box

Scaphoid

90

Ophthalmological abnormalities in neonate

Mom used warfarin

 

(This is why we use HEPARIN in pregnancy = doesn't cross placenta; warfarin also associated with bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, and abortion)

91

Ulnar nerve injury with fracture

Hook of hamate

92

Diaphyseal tumor

Ewing's sarcoma

94

Loss of forearm flexion

MC (C5-C6)

95

Garnder syndrome

FAP + osteomas + fibromatosis of retroperitoneum

96

Cause of dermatitis herpetiformis

IgA deposition at papillae

97

Defect in ability of alpha intercalated cells to secrete H+

RTA type I (pH > 5,5)

99

Carpal tunnel syndrome with dislocation

Lunate

100

Loss of sensation over medial 1 1/2 fingers

Ulnar nerve (C8-T1)

100

Defect in ability to proximal tubule cells to secrete HCO3-

RTA type II (pH < 5.5)

101

Placental ALP

Seminoma

 

(vs. LDH and hCG in dysgerminoma)

102

Muscles of facial expression

2nd arch, CN VII

103

Connexons

Components of gap junctions that permit electrical and chemical signaling between cells

104

Hyperkalemic RTA

Type IV (hypoaldosteronsim)

105

Salt and pepper skull

Hyperparathyroidsm

106

Stylopharyngeus muscle

3rd arch, CN IX

107

Arylsulfatase A deficiency

Metachromatic leukodystrophy = ataxia + dementia

108

CNS hamartomas

Tuberous sclerosis

 

(+ skin hamartomas)

110

Epiderminal accumulation of fluid in the intercellular spaces

Spongiosis

 

(eczema)

111

Leptin stimulates which nucleus of hypothalamus?

Ventromedial

112

Ebstein anomaly

Mother uses lithium during pregnancy; atrialized right ventricle

113

Fibular neck fracture

Common peroneal (L4-S2)

114

Adherens junctions

Below tight junctions; connect cytoskeleton of adjacent cells via cadherins

115

Cavernous hemangiomas in skin + hemangioma in cerebellum, retina, brainstem

VHL

116

Fractured surgical neck of humerus or anterior dislocation of humerus

Axillary nerve +/- posterior circumflex artery injury

 

(no abduction > 15 degrees, loss sensation over deltoid and lateral arm)

117

Medial epicondyle of humerus fracture

Ulnar nerve (C8-T1)

 

(Radial deviation with wrist flexion, loss of abduction and adduction of fingers, loss of sensation over medial 1 1/2 fingers)

119

Increased hat size

Paget disease

120

Inability to curl toes

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)

121

Crutches

Radial nerve compression (wrist drop)

122

Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus

Cooling, parasympathetic

123

Sublimation vs. reaction formation

Sublimation - mature - replacing unwanted desire with a similar course of action that doesn't conflict with values

 

Reaction formation - immature - replacing unwanted desire with its opposite

124

Large, fluid-filled blister > 1 cm

Bulla

126

Increased thickness of stratum corneum

Hyperkeratosis

128

Lichen planus

 

(sawtooth infiltration of lymphocytes at dermal-epidermal junction)

129

MC rotator cuff injury

Supraspinatus

 

(Trouble abducting below 15 degrees)

130

Sonic hedgehog mutations

Holoprosencephaly

131

Posterior nucleus of hypothalamus

Heating, sympathetic

133

Bullous pemphigoid

 

(IgG against hemidesmosomes)

134

Rescue with uridine

5-FU

135

Most common testicular tumor in older males

Lymphoma (metastasis)

137

Toxicity with allopurinol

6-MP, azathioprine = metabolized by XO

 

(purine analogs that inhibit de novo purine synthesis)

139

Artery involved in avascular necrosis of femoral head

Medial circumflex around femoral head

140

How might a pinealoma manifest?

Paralysis of conjugate vertical gaze due to compression of superior colliculi below pineal gland

 

(Parinaud syndrome)

142

BRAF mutation

Melanoma

 

 

(if metastatic, use vemuRAFinib)

143

Infectious cause of a lower nerve palsy?

Polio can cause superior gluteal nerve paralysis --> Trendelenburg gait

145

Difficulty climbing stairs

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

147

Trauma to lateral thorax - which artery and nerve?

Long thoracic nerve, lateral thoracic artery

147

Tumor within medullary cavity

Chondrosarcoma

148

Superficial laceration of palm

Recurrent branch of median nerve

 

(NO SENSORY LOSS + ape hand = loss of opposition, flexion, and abduction of thumb)

150

Loss of sensation over lateral forearm

MC (C5-C6)

152

Trauma to cubital fossa - which nerve and artery?

Median nerve + brachial artery

153

Ash-leaf spot

Tuberous sclerosis

155

Epidermal hyperplasia (increased stratum spinosum)

Acanthosis

155

Fast pain/temp fibers

A-delta fibers

 

(myelinated)

156

Small, fluid-filled blister < 1 cm

Vesicle

158

Pacinian corpuscle function

Vibration and pressure from deep skin layers, tendons, and joints

159

Axillary nerve (rotator cuff)

Teres minor

160

4 mature defense mechanisms

1. Altruism

2. Sublimation

3. Suppression

4. Humor

162

Suprascapular nerve

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus

163

Muscles of mastication

1st arch - CNV2,V3

164

Elevated solid lesion < 1 cm

Papule

165

Epiphyseal tumor

Giant cell tumor (soap bubble)

166

Treatment of osteopetrosis

BM transplant - osteoclasts derived from monocytes

166

Placental abruption

Cocaine

167

Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus

Satiety, stimulated by leptin

167

Defective breakdown of VLCFA's

Adrenoleukodystrophy

 

(Buildup of VLCFA in adrenals, testes, and nervous system)

169

Unmineralized osteoid around trabeculae

Vitamin D deficiency

170

Transient smooth papule or plaque

Wheal

171

Chloride diuresis

Prevents nephrotoxicity with cisplatin as the drug requires a low Cl- enviornment to become active

173

Loss of inversion and plantarflexion

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)

174

Wickham striae

 

(Oral manifestation of lichen planus)

175

Fracture to medial malleolus - which nerve and artery?

Tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery

177

Desomosome function

Structural support via keratin interactions

179

Merkel disc function

Static pressure (edges, shapes), position sense for basal epidermal layer and hair follicles

180

Impaired ammoniagenesis due to hyperkalemia

RTA IV

 

(Due to hypoaldosteronism or K+ sparing diuretics = less buffering ability so decreased H+ excretion = acidosis)

181

Abnormalities result from a single embryological event

Sequence

182

Failure of urogential folds to fuse

Hypospadias

184

Prevent cardiomyopathy with doxorubicin

Dexrazoxane (iron chelating agent)

185

Flat, well-circumscribed lesion >1 cm

Patch

186

Maternal diabetes defects

Macrocephaly

Transposition of great vessels

Caudal regression

Neural tube defects

 

(Give insulin for gestational diabetes!)

188

Use for busulfan

Ablate BM before transplant

190

Cooling, parasympathetic

Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus

 

(Anterior = A/C)

191

Low birth weight

Nicotine/CO

192

Supracondylar fracture of humerus

Median nerve (C5-T1)

193

Ostetitis fibrosa cystica

Hyperparathyroidsim --> "Brown tumors" due to fibrous replacement of bone + subperiosteal thinning

194

Aneurysm that can create visual field problems

ACom aneurysm

195

HOX mutation

Limbs in wrong place

196

Isolated increase in alk phos

Paget disease

197

Most commonly used GC's in chemo? MOA?

Prednisone, prednisolone

Trigger apoptosis of lymphocytes (so good for CLL, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma)

198

Natalizumab

Increases risk for PML

199

PV vs BP:

Nikolsky sign +

PV

 

(Nitolsky sign = separation of epidermis when you stroke skin)

200

Action of subscapularis

Medial rotation of arm and adduction

201

Bone pain resolves with ASA

Osteoid osteoma (osteoblast proliferation)

202

Hypoaldosteronism

Type IV RTA (pH < 5.5)

204

Hunger mediated by:

Lateral nucleus of hypothalamus

206

Scoliosis + high arched foot + stumbling + loss of DTRs + nystagmus + hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Freidrich ataxia

 

(No frataxin = mitochondrial iron storage protein)

207

Heating, sympathetic

Posterior nucleus of hypothalamus

208

2 uses for trastuzumab

HER2/neu+ breast cancer

Gastric cancer

 

(causes cardiotoxicity!)

209

Besides a retinoblastoma, what other tumor do patients with Rb mutation get?

Osteosarcoma

209

Resorptive damage to 2nd and 3rd phalanges

Hyperparathyroidism

210

No galactocerebrosidase

Krabbe disease

 

(Destruction of myelin = optic atrophy, developmental delay, peripheral neuropathy)

211

Bilateral renal cell carcinoma

VHL

212

Angiofibromas of tuberous slerosis

213

Tendon, deep skin layers, and joint info

Pacinian corpuscle

214

AFP tumor marker

Yolk sac tumor

216

Lateral nucleus of hypothalamus

Hunger, inhibited by leptin

217

Metaphyseal tumor

Osteochondroma

Osteosarcoma

219

Patient drops right hip when standing on left leg. What nerve is injured?

LEFT superior gluteal

 

(Lesion is contralateral to side of dropped hip)

220

K+ sparing diuretics can cause which type of RTA?

IV

 

(Remember type IV causes hyperkalemia and is due to defective ammonia production)

222

Neurofibromas in skin

NF1

223

Scoliosis + high arched or flat foot + sensory defects + motor defects

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

 

(Defective proteins for peripheral nerve function or myelin production)

224

Paget disease predisposes to:

High-out CF

Osteosarcoma

225

PV vs. BP:

Oral mucosa

PV

227

Bone-in-bone appearance on X ray

Osteopetrosis

228

Remnant of 2nd-4th branchial clefts

Branchial cleft cyst in lateral neck

230

Mutation associated with holoprosencephaly

Sonic hedgehog

231

Adduction of arm

Teres minor (axillary N)

Subscapularis (subscapular N)

232

Laryngeal muscles

6th arch, recurrent branch of X

 

(except cricothyroid)

233

Prevention of nephrotoxicity with cisplatin

Amifostine (free radical scavenger) and chloride diuresis (cisplatin has to be activated in low Cl- enviornments)

234

Inhibits topo I

Irinotecan, topotecan

235

Function of integrins

Maintain integrity of basolateral cell membrane by binding collagen and laminin in basement membrane

236

hCG, LDH tumor markers

Dysgerminoma

 

(vs. placental ALP in seminoma)

237

Where is oxytocin made?

Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

238

What's contained in the blisters of bullous pemphigoid?

Eosinophils

239

Loss of ____ promotes metastasis

E-cadherin (adherens junctions)

240

Call-Exner bodies (pseudo-follicles) or granulosa cell tumor

241

Loss of supination

MC (C5-C6)

242

Loss of hip extension

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)

243

Use for dactinomycin

Childhood tumors

(Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma)

244

Galant reflex

Stroke along spine when baby face down and spine laterally flexes toward stimulation

245

Moro reflex

Extend and abduct limbs when startled, followed by drawing limbs in

246

Loss of abduction, opposition, and flexion of thumb with no sensory loss

Recurrent branch of median nerve

246

BCC

 

(Pallisading nuclei!)

247

Pemphigus vulgaris

 

(IgG against desmoglein in stratum spinosum)

248

Inhibits topo II

Etopside, teniposide

250

Caudal regression syndrome

Uncontrolled maternal diabetes

 

Absent sacral and sometimes lumbar plexi = flaccid paralysis of lower limbs 

 

(Think baby with diabetic neuropathy)

251

2 uses for imatinib

CML, c-kit GIST

252

Sporadic neurocutaneous disorder

Sturge-Weber

253

Muscles of palate and pharynx + cricothyroid from larynx

4th pharyngeal arch, CN X

254

Aplasia cutis congenita

Methimazole

255

Function of hemidesomosomes

Connect keratins in basal cells to basement membrane

256

Nucleus ambiguus lesions

Specific to PICA stroke = dysarthria + hoarseness (CN IX and X)

257

Decreased sensation of medial thigh

Obtruator

258

Valgus stress

MCL injury

259

Flaking off of corneum stratum

Scale

260

Developmental delay + peripheral neuropathy + optic atrophy

Krabbe disease

 

(No galactocerebrosidse = myelin damage)

261

Mab for ITP

Rituximab

 

(inhibits CD20+ = no B cell activity)

262

Large, myelinated, slowly adapting sensory corpuscle

Merkel disc

263

Herald patch followed by Christmas tree distribution

Pityriasis rosea