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Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (33):
1

Basic Functions of Cells

-Exchange- with its environment
-Metabolism- chemical reactions
-Sensitive- to there environment
-Reproduction

2

Autotrophs

-producers- self-feeders
-extract energy from non-living enviroment

3

Heterotrophs

-Consumers
-rely on other living organisms for energy
-decomposers- fungi

4

Prokaryotic Cells

Mostly Bacteria
-Unicellular, no nucleus, no organelles
-Cell Wall, Cell capsule, Pilli/fimbriae

5

Peptidoglycan

The cell wall outside the cell membrane of a prokaryot

6

Cell Capsule

Slime Layer of a prokaryot
-a layer outside the cell wall

7

Pilli/fimbriae

Hair like extensions outside the cell.
-help them move in water type enviroments

8

Eukaryotic Cell

Larger with more complex internal structure
-nucleus, many organelles
-some have a cell wall made of cellulose or chitin
--all plants have them

9

Archean Cell

Smaller with a simple internal structure
-no nucleus, no organelles
-often found in extreme environments
-have both prokaryot and eukaryot characteristics

10

Nucleus

Contains genetic material- DNA

11

Organelles

-Organs of the cell
-Membrane bound structure
-Perform various functions for the cell
-Compartmentalize the cell

12

Nuclear Envelope

Double walled membrane surrounding the nucleus

13

Nucleous

the dark part of the nucleus filled with ribosomes

14

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Membranous systems of channels located against the nucleus.
-Rough ER and Smooth ER
-buds off products into vesicles- membrane bound pocket

15

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

The ER covered in ribosomes
-where the protein synthesis takes place

16

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
-part where there are no ribosomes

17

Ribosomes

Synthesize proteins
-reads RNA to put the protein together

18

Golgi Complex

-Receives raw proteins from E.R.
-performs final processing
-sorts protein
-packages protein-so they don't immediately start working and get where they need to go.

19

What is the order of protein synthesis in a cell?

-Nucleus
-Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Golgi Complex
-Where they are needed

20

Lysosomes

Contain hydroxide enzymes(water based)
- break down normal cellular debris
-membrane bound vesicles
-breaks down products into individual parts

21

Peroxisomes

Contain Oxide enzymes(oxygen based)
-More powerful than lysosomes
-breaks down toxic substances
-membrane bound vesicles

22

Mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell
-double membrane
-generate ATP from break down of carbs. and lipids
-the number of them in a cell depends on how much power it needs

23

Cytosol

Fluid the organelles are floating around in
-Storage
-Chemical reactions happen there
-Protein synthesis- ribosomes not attached to the E.R.

24

Cytoplasm

Everything outside the nucleus

25

Cytoskeleton

-Protien fibers
-Cell Shape
-Cell Movement
-Organelle Movement
-Cell Division

26

What are the kinds of Protein Fibers?

-Microfilament- small
-Intermediate filament- medium
-Microtubules- large

27

Flagella & Cilia

-extensions of the membrane
-filled with microtubules
-provide movement
--Some cells need them.

28

Cilia

Move fluid past the cell
-smaller than flagella
-usually many are on one cell

29

Flagellum

Move the cell
-usually just one on a cell

30

Cell Wall of Plant Cells

Made of Cellulose
-Protects, maintains shape, and prevents water loss
-provides rigidity/ support against gravity

31

Plasmodesmata

Pores that extend through the cell walls.
-so the cell can communicate and interact with other plant cells.

32

Chloroplast

Site of photosynthesis
-double membrane
-contains Chlorophyll
-uses sunlight to generate ATP
-Uses ATP to create glucose from H20 and CO2
-Have their own DNA

33

Vacuoles

Storage site
--Water, glucose, amino acids, poisons, pigments
-Can give shape and support to plant cells
-found in some plant cells and fresh water organisms