Flashcards in Cells Deck (33):
Basic Functions of Cells
-Exchange- with its environment
-Metabolism- chemical reactions
-Sensitive- to there environment
-extract energy from non-living enviroment
-rely on other living organisms for energy
-Unicellular, no nucleus, no organelles
-Cell Wall, Cell capsule, Pilli/fimbriae
The cell wall outside the cell membrane of a prokaryot
Slime Layer of a prokaryot
-a layer outside the cell wall
Hair like extensions outside the cell.
-help them move in water type enviroments
Larger with more complex internal structure
-nucleus, many organelles
-some have a cell wall made of cellulose or chitin
--all plants have them
Smaller with a simple internal structure
-no nucleus, no organelles
-often found in extreme environments
-have both prokaryot and eukaryot characteristics
Contains genetic material- DNA
-Organs of the cell
-Membrane bound structure
-Perform various functions for the cell
-Compartmentalize the cell
Double walled membrane surrounding the nucleus
the dark part of the nucleus filled with ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membranous systems of channels located against the nucleus.
-Rough ER and Smooth ER
-buds off products into vesicles- membrane bound pocket
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The ER covered in ribosomes
-where the protein synthesis takes place
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
-part where there are no ribosomes
-reads RNA to put the protein together
-Receives raw proteins from E.R.
-performs final processing
-packages protein-so they don't immediately start working and get where they need to go.
What is the order of protein synthesis in a cell?
-Where they are needed
Contain hydroxide enzymes(water based)
- break down normal cellular debris
-membrane bound vesicles
-breaks down products into individual parts
Contain Oxide enzymes(oxygen based)
-More powerful than lysosomes
-breaks down toxic substances
-membrane bound vesicles
powerhouse of the cell
-generate ATP from break down of carbs. and lipids
-the number of them in a cell depends on how much power it needs
Fluid the organelles are floating around in
-Chemical reactions happen there
-Protein synthesis- ribosomes not attached to the E.R.
Everything outside the nucleus
What are the kinds of Protein Fibers?
-Intermediate filament- medium
Flagella & Cilia
-extensions of the membrane
-filled with microtubules
--Some cells need them.
Move fluid past the cell
-smaller than flagella
-usually many are on one cell
Move the cell
-usually just one on a cell
Cell Wall of Plant Cells
Made of Cellulose
-Protects, maintains shape, and prevents water loss
-provides rigidity/ support against gravity
Pores that extend through the cell walls.
-so the cell can communicate and interact with other plant cells.
Site of photosynthesis
-uses sunlight to generate ATP
-Uses ATP to create glucose from H20 and CO2
-Have their own DNA