Organic Molecules Flashcards Preview

Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Organic Molecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Molecules Deck (37):
1

Inorganic

Water, salts, acids/bases, ions

2

Monomers

The most basic unit of an organic molecule

3

Polymers

A more complex form of an organic molecule.

4

Dehydration Synthesis/ Condensation Reaction

How we put monomers together to make polymers.
-taking water out of the molecule.

5

Hydrolysis

Breaking apart polymers to make monomers.
- adding water back into the molecule

6

Carbohydrates (CHO)

Sugars
-functions: energy and structure

7

Monosaccharides

Simplest form of a carbohydrate
-simple sugars
-- mostly form ring structures
--glucose is the most common- fructose and galactose are more.

8

Disaccharide

Two or more monosaccharides stuck together

9

Polysaccharide

Many monosaccharides stuck together
-complex carbohydrate

10

Organic

Based on carbon/carbon skeleton
- carbon is the smallest atom that can form the most covalent bonds.

11

What is the Polysaccharide in plants?

Starch

12

what Polysaccharide is the storage form in animal?

Glycogen

13

Cellulose

Is a polysaccharide that we cannot break down.
-plants use it for structure
-we call it Fiber

14

Lipids

Are fats
-Nonpolar and Hydrophobic
-Functions: Energy Storage, insulation, hormones, membrane structure.

15

Fatty Acids

Long straight chains of carbons
-There are unsaturated and saturated fatty acids

16

Saturated Fatty Acids

Saturated with hydrogen.
-Hard for chemical reactions to happen
-Hard to break down

17

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Creates double carbon bonds
-not filled with hydrogen so it can be bonded with and broken down more easily.

18

Triglycerides

3 fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone
-Storage form of fatty acids

19

Phospholipids

2 Fatty Acid tails attached to a phosphate head.
-Fatty Acid tail is nonpolar and hydrophobic
-Phosphate head id polar and hydrophobic
-Bases for cell membranes

20

Proteins

Most complex-most functions
-Functions: structure, enzymes, hormones, transport
-Make up all the structures of any living things body

21

Amino Acids

Building Blocks of proteins
-all structures are made of the same 20 amino acids just put together differently

22

R-group

is the functional group on an Amino Acid.
-this is what is differs between Amino Acids.

23

Peptide Bond

The covalent bond holding Amino Acids together.

24

Peptide/Polypeptide

Smallest strings of Amino Acids
-Not big enough to structure into proteins yet.

25

What makes Proteins different?

-What Amino Acid it has
-How it is put together
-The structure

26

How many levels of structure/organization does protein have?

1. Primary Structure
2. Secondary Structure
3. Tertiary Structure
4. Quarternary Structure

27

Primary Structure of Protiens

Peptide bond formation
-Condensation
-A sequence of Amino Acids

28

Secondary Structure of Proteins

Hydrogen bonds form on the Amino Acid chains
-Coiling Helix or Sheet like pattern emerges through bonding

29

Tertiary Structure of Proteins

Interactions between R-groups
-Additional folding of secondary structure

30

Quarternary Structure of Proteins

Putting multiple polypeptides together to form the protein.
-usually covalent bonding, but also hydrogen bonding occuring

31

RNA-Ribonucleic Acid

The code for proteins
-tell what amino acids should go together to make you who you are

32

Nucleotiedes

Monomers
4 of them: Guamine, Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, and Urucil- is for RNA
-everything is based off them and how they are put together.

33

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Energy Currency
-every cell is designed to use this as energy

34

Glycoproteins

Combination of protein and carbohydrate

35

Glycosominoglycans

Bigger combo. of proteins and carbohydrates

36

Proteoglycans

Even bigger combo. of proteins and carbohydrates

37

Lipoproteins

Combo of lipid and protein
-proteins carry lipids around in the blood because they are hydrophobic