Flashcards in Organic Molecules Deck (37):
Water, salts, acids/bases, ions
The most basic unit of an organic molecule
A more complex form of an organic molecule.
Dehydration Synthesis/ Condensation Reaction
How we put monomers together to make polymers.
-taking water out of the molecule.
Breaking apart polymers to make monomers.
- adding water back into the molecule
-functions: energy and structure
Simplest form of a carbohydrate
-- mostly form ring structures
--glucose is the most common- fructose and galactose are more.
Two or more monosaccharides stuck together
Many monosaccharides stuck together
Based on carbon/carbon skeleton
- carbon is the smallest atom that can form the most covalent bonds.
What is the Polysaccharide in plants?
what Polysaccharide is the storage form in animal?
Is a polysaccharide that we cannot break down.
-plants use it for structure
-we call it Fiber
-Nonpolar and Hydrophobic
-Functions: Energy Storage, insulation, hormones, membrane structure.
Long straight chains of carbons
-There are unsaturated and saturated fatty acids
Saturated Fatty Acids
Saturated with hydrogen.
-Hard for chemical reactions to happen
-Hard to break down
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Creates double carbon bonds
-not filled with hydrogen so it can be bonded with and broken down more easily.
3 fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone
-Storage form of fatty acids
2 Fatty Acid tails attached to a phosphate head.
-Fatty Acid tail is nonpolar and hydrophobic
-Phosphate head id polar and hydrophobic
-Bases for cell membranes
Most complex-most functions
-Functions: structure, enzymes, hormones, transport
-Make up all the structures of any living things body
Building Blocks of proteins
-all structures are made of the same 20 amino acids just put together differently
is the functional group on an Amino Acid.
-this is what is differs between Amino Acids.
The covalent bond holding Amino Acids together.
Smallest strings of Amino Acids
-Not big enough to structure into proteins yet.
What makes Proteins different?
-What Amino Acid it has
-How it is put together
How many levels of structure/organization does protein have?
1. Primary Structure
2. Secondary Structure
3. Tertiary Structure
4. Quarternary Structure
Primary Structure of Protiens
Peptide bond formation
-A sequence of Amino Acids
Secondary Structure of Proteins
Hydrogen bonds form on the Amino Acid chains
-Coiling Helix or Sheet like pattern emerges through bonding
Tertiary Structure of Proteins
Interactions between R-groups
-Additional folding of secondary structure
Quarternary Structure of Proteins
Putting multiple polypeptides together to form the protein.
-usually covalent bonding, but also hydrogen bonding occuring
The code for proteins
-tell what amino acids should go together to make you who you are
4 of them: Guamine, Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, and Urucil- is for RNA
-everything is based off them and how they are put together.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
-every cell is designed to use this as energy
Combination of protein and carbohydrate
Bigger combo. of proteins and carbohydrates
Even bigger combo. of proteins and carbohydrates