Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Flashcards Preview

Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Eukaryotic Cell Cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Deck (27):
1

Interphase

in between when the cells are dividing

2

G1

cell growth and differentiation
-fully maturing to be what the cell is supposed to be

3

G0

-non-dividing stage
-doing the job it is supposed to do
-most of the time cells are in this phase
-only re-enter the cycle when we need more cells
--nerve cells are forever in this stage
--cancer cells never go into this stage

4

S

Synthesis of DNA; chromosomes are duplicated
-at the end of this stage we will have 46 duplicated chromosomes

5

G2

Cell growth
-making more of everything for when the cell divides into two, so there is enough for both cells

6

Mitosis

Equal division of the genetic material
-division of 1 diploid(2n) cell into 2 diploid(2n) cells

7

diploid cells

have two copies of every gene
-homologous pairs of all the chromosomes

8

What are the 4 stages to Mitosis Division?

1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase

9

Prophase

-Chromosomes condense
-spindles form
-centrioles go to opposite poles
-the nuclear envelope breaks down
-spindles attach to kineticore of each chromosome
--begin to guide them to the center or equator of the cell

10

centrioles

proteins that guide spindles

11

Metaphase

-Chromosomes line up ate the equator of the cell
--there is no order to the line up

12

Anaphase

-Chromosomes separate
-Spindles elongate- elongating the cell
-46 unduplicated chromosomes are pulled towards the centrioles on different sides of the cell

13

Telophase

-begins when chromosomes reach centrioles
-chromosomes are released from the spindles
-chromosomes uncoil/uncondense
-new nuclear envelope is formed

14

Cytokinesis

-division of cytoplasm (dividing everything else up)
- micro-filaments pinch off the cells
-2 daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell (diploid/2n)

15

Meiosis (Meiotic Cell Division)

-Key to sexual reproduction
-production of sperm / eggs
-1 diploid(2n) cell dividing into 4 haploid(n) cells
-2 rounds of division (Meiosis I and Meiosis II)
-involves genetic recombination

16

Genetic Recombination

-cross over of homologous chromosomes
-trades some genes, different alleles
--random on each chromosome, but must trade the same gene type
-increases genetic variability

17

Meiosis I Phases

-Seperates homologous chromosomes into 2 haploid(n) daughter cells
1. Prophase I
2. Metaphase I
3. Anaphase I
4. Telophase

18

Prophase I

-Chromosomes condense
-nuclear envelope breaks down
-homologous chromosomes line up together
-recombination occurs
-spindles form and attach to chromosomes at the kinetochore

19

Metaphase I

-Chromosomes line up at the equator
--homologous pairs will stay together

20

Anaphase I

-Homologous pairs separate to opposite sides
--sister chromatids stay together
-pulled be spindle microtubles

21

Telophase

-spindles disappear
-nuclear envelope reforms
-cytokinesis occurs
-2 daughter cells have 1 of each chromosome pair (duplicated)
--haploid(n)

22

Meiosis II

-separates sister chromatids to 2 haploid(n) daughter cells

23

Prophase II

-Chromosomes re-condense
-nuclear envelope breaks down
-spindle reforms and attaches to chromosomes at the kineticore

24

Metaphase II

-Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell

25

Anaphase II

-Chromosomes separate
-Chromosomes are pulled towards the centriole
-Spindle elongates- elongating the cell

26

Telophase II

-begins when chromosomes reach centrioles
-chromosomes released from tubules
--uncoil-uncondense
-new nuclear envelope fromed

27

Cytokinesis of Meitosis

-4 daughter cells with 1 copy of each chromosomes
--haploid (n)