Inheritance Flashcards Preview

Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Inheritance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inheritance Deck (19):
1

Making Gametes

when meoisis occurs (making sperm and eggs)
-homologous chromosomes separate
-then chromosomes separated
-some gametes get 1 chromosome(chromatid) : 1 allele

2

If a parent is homozygous for a gene:

All gametes get the same allele

3

If a parent is heterozygous for a gene:

half the gametes get one allele and half get the other

4

Making Babies

Fertilization: union of sperm and egg
-each gamete contributes 1 allele of each gene
-offspring get 2 alleles of each gene
-offspring cna be homozygous or heterozygous depending on which gametes/alleles

5

Punnett Square

is used to help determine the genotype of offspring or parents

6

Gregor Mendel

did the foundational work for genetics/inheritance
-worked with pea plants
--pollen/sperm and eggs
--self fertilization
--cross fertilization
-he cross fertilized true breeding plants in an experiment

7

cross fertilization

transfer pollen from 1 plant to another

8

self fertilization

the plant uses its own pollen

9

true breeding

the offspring all come out the same

10

Test Cross

crossing individuals in question with individuals who are homozygous recessive for that trait

11

Law of Independent Assortment

alleles of 1 gene distribute to gametes independently of alleles of another gene-on different chromosomes
-Doesn't work for genes on the same chromosome

12

Sex linked genes

genes on the X or y chromosome
-males and females have different copies of every gene

13

Incomplete Dominance

-Homozygous for allele 1 = 1st Phenotype
-Homozygous for allele 2= 2nd Phenotype
-Heterozgous = intermediate Phenotype
--flower color, hair texture

14

Codominance

Alleles are codominant when they are both expressed in the heterozygote/ hybrid
--Homozygous pink= pink flowers
--Homozygous white= white flowers
--Heterozygous= flowers that are both pink and white

15

Multiple Alleles

1 gene: 2 alleles combination on many different alleles results in many different phenotypes
--blood type, hair color (except gingers)

16

Epistasis

Interaction of 2 genes (2 pairs of alleles)
--color of a Labrador retriever

17

Pleiotropy

When 1 gene affects 2 or more traits
--cystic fibrosis, MCIR (affects hair and skin tone), albinism

18

Polygenic Inheritance

Multiple genes contribute to phenotype
-produces a continuum of phenotypes
--skin color, eye color

19

Heterochromia

different colored eyes
-mutation---alleles allows fro multiple expressions
-more common in dogs and cats
-can also be caused by disease or injury