Genetics/ DNA Flashcards Preview

Bio 1610 Pittilleri > Genetics/ DNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetics/ DNA Deck (29):
1

DNA

has 4 nucleotides
-Thymine (T)
-Cytosine (C)
-Adenine (A)
-Guanine (G)
--They all have a phosphate group and a 5 carbon sugar. They differ in their bases.

2

DNA Structure

-the nucleotides are put together by their common elements. The phosphate group to the 5 carbon sugar.
-the sugar phosphate back bone is strung together with the different bases sticking out to the side.

3

DNA Double Helix Structure

-It is read 3 prime to 5 prime
-2 strands of DNA are connected via the different bases with hydrogen bonds
--they are attached anti-parallel
-the same bases are always together
-the strands are duplicates of each other if read 3 prime to 5 prime on each strand

4

What nucleotides go together?

Adenine and Thymine A-T
Cytosine and Guanine C-G

5

How do you read the code of DNA?

-Take the sequence of nucleotides to give the sequence and order of the Amino acids
-Read every three bases

6

Codons

three nucleotides put together
-some repeat meaning they will code for the same amino acid

7

Chromosomes

Condensed DNA
-the DNA strands are coiled in on itself
--they coil up together and then coil again getting shorter and more bunched or condensed into the chromosome

8

Histone Protein

They help condense DNA
-The DNA coils around them and they help the DNA coil together

9

1 double stranded helix is?

one unduplicated chromosome

10

2 Double stranded helix's that are exact copies of each other become?

A duplicated Chromosome or a Chromatid and its sister Chromatid

11

Centromere

Where 2 chromatids attach

12

Kineticore

is the protein that attaches 2 chromatids at the centromere

13

Genes

are a discrete unit of information on a chromosome
-they code for a particular protein or trait

14

The first codons is?

The start Codon

15

Codons between genes are?

Garbage Codons that don't make anything

16

Allele

different form or version of a gene
-different alleles make different traits or proteins.
-same proteins different order that changes things

17

Human Genome

The collection of Human Genetic code
-46 Chromosomes
--23 pairs
---22 homologous/ autosomal
---1 pair sex chromosomes
-On every homologous chromosome you have the same genes in the same place but you could have different alleles.
-you have two copies of every gene, but there can be many different alleles for the two genes

18

what cell in your body does not have 46 chromosomes?

Your sex cells

19

were do you get you traits from?

One from your mother and one from your father

20

Expression of Alleles

What you are going to get/see

21

Wild type Alleles

Just more common alleles

22

Mutant type Alleles

Less common Alleles

23

Dominance

-dominant/recessive
-Homozygous Dominant
- Heterozygous
-Homozygous Recessive

24

Homozygous Dominant

you will display the dominant gene

25

Heterozygous

you will display the dominant gene

26

Homozygous Recessive

is the only way you get a recessive gene

27

Genotype

showing/telling/saying what alleles someone has

28

Phenotype

what is actually expressed in the genotype

29

Sex Determination

-we all have to have an X chromosome it has nothing to do with sex. It has important genes that we need
- The Y chromosome is called the male chromosome. It is the male determining gene.
-If female XX
-If male XY