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Flashcards in From DNA to Protein Deck (27):
1

What 2 processes take DNA to Protein

1. Transcription (RNA synthesis)
2. Translation (Protein synthesis)

2

Transcription

DNA---RNA
1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination

3

what are the 3 parts to each gene?

-promoter region
-body
-termination signal

4

promoter region of a gene

where RNA polymerase binds

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body of a gene

begins with the start codon

6

termination signal of a gene

end codon and signal for RNA polymerase to detach

7

What is the Machinery for transcription

-transcription factors
-RNA Polymerase

8

Transcription factors

recognize promoter region and signals the polymerase to bind

9

RNA Polymerase

pulls DNA strands apart; creates RNA strand from the DNA template strand

10

Initiation of transcription

-transcription factors find and attach to the promoter
-RNA polymerase attaches to DNA
-Polymerase separates DNA and begins synthesis of RNA from DNA template strand
--reads 3 to 5 prime
--creates 5 to 3 prime

11

Elongation of transcription

-RNA polymerase travels down DNA template
-Creates RNA strand with bases complementary to DNA strand
-RNA strand separates so DNA strand can reattach and recoil

12

Termination of transcription

-At termination signal polymerase releases DNA and RNA
-RNA strand that is created is mRNA
--goes from the nucleous to the cytosol

13

what are the 3 types of RNA

-mRNA
-rRNA
-tRNA

14

mRNA

messenger RNA
-RNA code for proteins

15

rRNA

Ribosomal RNA
-RNA-protein complex that reads mRNA and builds proteins
-in the cytosol mostly on the rough endoplasmic reticulem

16

tRNA

transfer RNA
-RNA that carries specific amino acids
--brings in the necessary amino acids for the rRNA

17

anticodon

tRNA nucleotides base trio that corresponds to the specific amino acid called for by the codon
(complementary base pairs for the mRNA)

18

Translation

RNA---Protein
-mRNA carries the code from the nucleous to the cytoplasm
-ribosomes (rRNA) couple with the mRNA
-tRNA brings in the appropriate amino acid
1. Initiation
2. Elongation
3. Termination

19

Initiation of translation

-Ribosomes (rRNA) sandwich mRNA
-tRNA attaches to start codon and begins bringing in amino acids

20

Elongation of translation

-tRNA keeps shuttling in amino acids one by one

21

Termination of translation

-stop codon reached
-protein and mRNA released

22

Regulation of Genes

expression is regulated by differentiaiton and demand
-can't make and have the transcription factors for what the cell doesn't need
-can be regulated at 4 different steps

23

What are the 4 steps genes can be regulated by?

1. Regulation of transcription
2. Regulation of translation
3. Modification/ activation of proteins
4. Degradation of proteins

24

Regulation of transcription

we can activate and deactivate transcription factors as needed

25

Regulation of translation

we can control how much gets translated

26

Modification / activation of proteins

can control activating proteins and deactivating them

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Degradation of proteins

can break them down when no longer needed