Ch 11: The Later Middle Ages Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 11: The Later Middle Ages > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 11: The Later Middle Ages Deck (105)
1

What caused the poor harvests in the later Middle Ages?

Colder, wetter climate

2

What was the term for the period where a climate change occurred?

"Little Ice Age"

3

The period of starvation that occurred because of poor harvests in Europe was termed ______________

The Great Famine

4

This ethnic group was a scapegoat for the general suffering during the Later Middle Ages

The Jewish

5

How did the sons of Philip the Fair try to deal with the famine?

Forbade sale of grain abroad

6

What country did Philip the Fair rule from 1314-1328?

France

7

How did Edward II attempt to deal with the famine?

Condemned speculators, set price controls, bought grain abroad

8

How effective were the government responses to the famine?

Ineffective

9

How did the famine affect the strength of the plague on European society?

Starvation and malnourishment made people more susceptible to disease

10

Year round ____________ caused vermin to spread pathogens quickly

Shipping

11

__________ ships carried Black Death

Genoese

12

The Black Death was also knows as the ________________

Bubonic plague

13

Were urban or rural areas hit harder by the plague?

Urban

14

Who discovered the treatment more bubonic plague?

Selman Walker

15

What did the medics at the time believe caused the plague?

Poisons in the air that caused fluids in the body to become unbalanced

16

Many members of the __________ took care of the sick

Clergy

17

This Italian poet described the plague in his book "The Decameron"

Giovanni Boccaccio

18

Many cities were __________ to disallow the sickness from entering

Quarantined

19

What caused the famine?

Agrarian technology could not keep up with the growing population

20

The lack of population from plague and famine caused general __________ because of less workers to produce goods

Inflation

21

Labor shortages meant that surviving workers could _______________________________

Demand higher wages

22

The survivors had a ___________ standard of living

Higher

23

How did people religiously interpret the plague?

It was gods punishment for sinful behavior

24

People who whipped themselves to repent for their sins in response to the plague

Flagellants

25

A shortage of priests caused an increase in _________

Universities

26

Who fought in the Hundred Years' War?

France and England

27

This treaty asserted England's claims to the Duchy of Aquitane

Treaty of Paris, 1259

28

Who signed the Treaty of Paris for England?

Henry III

29

Who signed the Treaty of Paris for France?

Louis IX

30

French policy in the 1300's was ____________

Expansionist

31

What did France decide to do as part of their expansionist policy?

Absorb the Duchy of Aquitaine

32

Who was the last surviving son of Philip the Fair? He died childless, ending the Capetian dynasty

Charles IV

33

Charles sister Isabella, had a son _____________ King of England

Edward III

34

What law did the French make up to exclude Isabella and Edward III from the French monarchy?

No women nor her son can succeed in French monarchy

35

Who did the French crown king instead of Edward III?

Philip Of Valois

36

Support from which French regional group would become pivotal to victory in the war?

Dukes of Burgundy

37

Who did Scotland ally with?

France

38

The war caused both countries to foster deep ___________

Nationalism

39

Wool trade between __________ and England was pivotal to both economies

Flanders

40

War fought almost exclusively in ____________

France

41

What country experienced success early on?

England

42

The English used cannons and ___________ to secure many victories

Longbows

43

English soldier/king who invaded France and used long-bowman to defeat French at Agincourt

Henry V

44

Henry V reconquested ____________

Normandy

45

Henry V married the _______ kings daughter, making himself and his sons heir to the throne

French

46

Henry V _____ unexpectedly and left his infant son as heir

Died

47

French peasant girl whose military revived France

Joan of Arc

48

What was unusual about Joan of Arc's dress?

She wore male clothes

49

What did Joan of Arc claim that godly voices told her?

The uncrowned Charles VII had to be crowned and the English expelled from France

50

Joan was captured and found guilty of ________ for which she was burned at the stake

Heresy

51

How did the French fair without Joan of Arc?

They continued victory without her

52

Sensing a shift in power, the Burgundians switched their allegiance to _______

France

53

As the war went on the ________ public demanded for the king to end the war

English

54

Who requested Joan's second trial?

Charles II

55

What Joan's second trial do?

Clear her of all charges

56

On a positive note, the war stimulated the development of the English ______________

Parliament

57

Deliberative meetings one lords and wealthy urban residents that flourished in many European countries (ex. English Parliament). Laid foundations for modern democracy

Representative assemblies

58

What was the main difference between French and English assemblies?

The French had many regional assemblies while the English had one national assembly

59

Philip the Fair had a long dispute with ____________

Pope Boniface VIII

60

What did Philip the Fair do after Pope Boniface's death in order to control the church?

Pressures new pope Clement V to settle in Avignon

61

What was the term for the period when successive popes resided in Avignon?

Babylonian Captivity

62

Italian ____________ took head of the church in Rome

Urban VI

63

Urban attacked ____________

Clerical luxury

64

Why did the cardinals declare Urban's election to the papacy invalid?

It had come about under threats from the roman mob

65

Who did the Cardinals elect as pope instead of Urban?

Clement VII

66

What's the term coined for the period of time where their were two then three popes?

Great Schism

67

Who did France recognize as pope during the great schism?

Clement VII

68

Who did England recognize as pope during the great schism?

Urban

69

This French philosopher was critical of the church and argued that it should be separate from state

William of Occam

70

Who wrote the book "the defender of the peace" where he argued that the church should be under the state

Marsiglio

71

People critical of the church who said that reform should be achieved by councils representing all Christian people, and that the the pope had to much power

Conciliarists

72

This conciliarist believed that scripture was the center of religion and that the pope shouldn't be so powerful

John Wycliffe

73

__________ played a significant role in the conciliarist movement

Women

74

He built on Wycliffe's ideas and defeated the churches army many times, he was tried and burned at the stake for his beliefs

Jan Hus

75

In 1430 the Bohemian emperor recognized the __________ church

Hussite

76

What did the council at Pisa do to try to end the great schism?

Appoint a new pope

77

How did the Roman and Avignon pope respond to the appointment of a new pope?

They refused to resign

78

What were the three goals of the council at Constance?

-wipe out heresy
-end schism
-reform church

79

What did the council at Constance do the the Roman pope as the pope appointed at Pisa?

Dismissed them

80

What did the council at Constance do to the Avignon pope?

Isolated him

81

Who was the new pope appointed at the council at Constance?

Martin V

82

Martin dissolved the church without doing anything about _______

Reform

83

How did the schism affect religion?

Caused people to find different outlets of religion away from church authority

84

Volunteer lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, etc. Raised money for the church

Confraternities

85

Famine, plague, and war _________ confraternities

Increased

86

Direct experience of the divine

Mysticism

87

Where was the first major peasant revolt?

Flanders

88

Why did peasants in Flanders revolt?

They were forced to pay taxes to the French

89

Peasant revolt in France caused by taxation from the Hundred Years War

Jacquerie

90

The ___________ united to end the Jacquerie

Upper class

91

Issued by English king, froze wages and bound peasants to their manor. Could not be enforced

Statute of Laborers

92

Preacher who rallied the peasant revolts

John Ball

93

What caused the English Peasant Revolt?

Reimposition of tax on all adult males

94

English ruler who agreed for peasants freedom, made false promises, and crushed the English Peasant Revolt

Boy-King Richard II

95

With many bored young men populating the cities _________ increased in popularity

Prostitution

96

This was deemed as a crime against nature

Same sex relations

97

Nobles who were bored and broke after the Hundred Years War turned to crime, this was dubbed __________

Fur collar crime

98

Folk legend character who avenged people from fur collar crimes

Robin Hood

99

System where migrants brought and followed laws of their home country

Legal dualism

100

Who did England exclude from participating in legal dualism

Irish

101

What did the Statue of Kilkenny entail?

-no marriage between migrants and natives
-Irish must speak English and take English names
-Irish must dress English and ride saddles the English way

102

Epic poem written by Dante that described the three realms of the next world: Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise

Divine Comedy

103

Collection of stories told by 30 people of different social backgrounds written by Geoffrey Chaucer

Canterbury Tales

104

This time period saw and increasing ___________ I laypeople

Literacy

105

Last book of the New Testament; dealt with disease, war, famine, and death (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse)

The book of revelation