Flashcards in Ch 11: The Later Middle Ages Deck (105)
What caused the poor harvests in the later Middle Ages?
Colder, wetter climate
What was the term for the period where a climate change occurred?
"Little Ice Age"
The period of starvation that occurred because of poor harvests in Europe was termed ______________
The Great Famine
This ethnic group was a scapegoat for the general suffering during the Later Middle Ages
How did the sons of Philip the Fair try to deal with the famine?
Forbade sale of grain abroad
What country did Philip the Fair rule from 1314-1328?
How did Edward II attempt to deal with the famine?
Condemned speculators, set price controls, bought grain abroad
How effective were the government responses to the famine?
How did the famine affect the strength of the plague on European society?
Starvation and malnourishment made people more susceptible to disease
Year round ____________ caused vermin to spread pathogens quickly
__________ ships carried Black Death
The Black Death was also knows as the ________________
Were urban or rural areas hit harder by the plague?
Who discovered the treatment more bubonic plague?
What did the medics at the time believe caused the plague?
Poisons in the air that caused fluids in the body to become unbalanced
Many members of the __________ took care of the sick
This Italian poet described the plague in his book "The Decameron"
Many cities were __________ to disallow the sickness from entering
What caused the famine?
Agrarian technology could not keep up with the growing population
The lack of population from plague and famine caused general __________ because of less workers to produce goods
Labor shortages meant that surviving workers could _______________________________
Demand higher wages
The survivors had a ___________ standard of living
How did people religiously interpret the plague?
It was gods punishment for sinful behavior
People who whipped themselves to repent for their sins in response to the plague
A shortage of priests caused an increase in _________
Who fought in the Hundred Years' War?
France and England
This treaty asserted England's claims to the Duchy of Aquitane
Treaty of Paris, 1259
Who signed the Treaty of Paris for England?
Who signed the Treaty of Paris for France?
French policy in the 1300's was ____________
What did France decide to do as part of their expansionist policy?
Absorb the Duchy of Aquitaine
Who was the last surviving son of Philip the Fair? He died childless, ending the Capetian dynasty
Charles sister Isabella, had a son _____________ King of England
What law did the French make up to exclude Isabella and Edward III from the French monarchy?
No women nor her son can succeed in French monarchy
Who did the French crown king instead of Edward III?
Philip Of Valois
Support from which French regional group would become pivotal to victory in the war?
Dukes of Burgundy
Who did Scotland ally with?
The war caused both countries to foster deep ___________
Wool trade between __________ and England was pivotal to both economies
War fought almost exclusively in ____________
What country experienced success early on?
The English used cannons and ___________ to secure many victories
English soldier/king who invaded France and used long-bowman to defeat French at Agincourt
Henry V reconquested ____________
Henry V married the _______ kings daughter, making himself and his sons heir to the throne
Henry V _____ unexpectedly and left his infant son as heir
French peasant girl whose military revived France
Joan of Arc
What was unusual about Joan of Arc's dress?
She wore male clothes
What did Joan of Arc claim that godly voices told her?
The uncrowned Charles VII had to be crowned and the English expelled from France
Joan was captured and found guilty of ________ for which she was burned at the stake
How did the French fair without Joan of Arc?
They continued victory without her
Sensing a shift in power, the Burgundians switched their allegiance to _______
As the war went on the ________ public demanded for the king to end the war
Who requested Joan's second trial?
What Joan's second trial do?
Clear her of all charges
On a positive note, the war stimulated the development of the English ______________
Deliberative meetings one lords and wealthy urban residents that flourished in many European countries (ex. English Parliament). Laid foundations for modern democracy
What was the main difference between French and English assemblies?
The French had many regional assemblies while the English had one national assembly
Philip the Fair had a long dispute with ____________
Pope Boniface VIII
What did Philip the Fair do after Pope Boniface's death in order to control the church?
Pressures new pope Clement V to settle in Avignon
What was the term for the period when successive popes resided in Avignon?
Italian ____________ took head of the church in Rome
Urban attacked ____________
Why did the cardinals declare Urban's election to the papacy invalid?
It had come about under threats from the roman mob
Who did the Cardinals elect as pope instead of Urban?
What's the term coined for the period of time where their were two then three popes?
Who did France recognize as pope during the great schism?
Who did England recognize as pope during the great schism?
This French philosopher was critical of the church and argued that it should be separate from state
William of Occam
Who wrote the book "the defender of the peace" where he argued that the church should be under the state
People critical of the church who said that reform should be achieved by councils representing all Christian people, and that the the pope had to much power
This conciliarist believed that scripture was the center of religion and that the pope shouldn't be so powerful
__________ played a significant role in the conciliarist movement
He built on Wycliffe's ideas and defeated the churches army many times, he was tried and burned at the stake for his beliefs
In 1430 the Bohemian emperor recognized the __________ church
What did the council at Pisa do to try to end the great schism?
Appoint a new pope
How did the Roman and Avignon pope respond to the appointment of a new pope?
They refused to resign
What were the three goals of the council at Constance?
-wipe out heresy
What did the council at Constance do the the Roman pope as the pope appointed at Pisa?
What did the council at Constance do to the Avignon pope?
Who was the new pope appointed at the council at Constance?
Martin dissolved the church without doing anything about _______
How did the schism affect religion?
Caused people to find different outlets of religion away from church authority
Volunteer lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, etc. Raised money for the church
Famine, plague, and war _________ confraternities
Direct experience of the divine
Where was the first major peasant revolt?
Why did peasants in Flanders revolt?
They were forced to pay taxes to the French
Peasant revolt in France caused by taxation from the Hundred Years War
The ___________ united to end the Jacquerie
Issued by English king, froze wages and bound peasants to their manor. Could not be enforced
Statute of Laborers
Preacher who rallied the peasant revolts
What caused the English Peasant Revolt?
Reimposition of tax on all adult males
English ruler who agreed for peasants freedom, made false promises, and crushed the English Peasant Revolt
Boy-King Richard II
With many bored young men populating the cities _________ increased in popularity
This was deemed as a crime against nature
Same sex relations
Nobles who were bored and broke after the Hundred Years War turned to crime, this was dubbed __________
Fur collar crime
Folk legend character who avenged people from fur collar crimes
System where migrants brought and followed laws of their home country
Who did England exclude from participating in legal dualism
What did the Statue of Kilkenny entail?
-no marriage between migrants and natives
-Irish must speak English and take English names
-Irish must dress English and ride saddles the English way
Epic poem written by Dante that described the three realms of the next world: Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise
Collection of stories told by 30 people of different social backgrounds written by Geoffrey Chaucer
This time period saw and increasing ___________ I laypeople