Flashcards in Ch 13: The Reformation and Religious Wars Deck (184)
Anticlericalism was mainly focused on what three problems?
Holding more than one church office at a time
Frequent absence from office by priests
Many priests couldn't read in what language?
When priests held multiple offices, they would often hire ____________ to there jobs in their place
____________ bred local resentment
Clerics were exempt from ______________ like defending the city and paying taxes
German university professor and priest who propelled the reformation
Martin Luther joined this religious order who taught, preached to, and assisted the poor
Martin Luther was professor of the scriptures at what university?
What did Luther believe about faith?
Faith was a free gift of gods grace
Pope Leo X authorized the sale of the ____________ indulgence to finance his plans in Rome
St. Peter's Indulgence
Archbishop who controlled the area by Wittenberg, enthusiastically promoted indulgences
Albert of Mainz
Document issued by the Catholic Church lessening time in purgatory
The collection of all the virtuous acts that Christ, the apostles, and saints did during their lives, purgatory could be shortened by drawing on it with indulgences
Treasure of merits
What friar ran Albert of Mainz' indulgence sale?
Letter written by Luther that argued against the sale of indulgences
What was the result of luthers 95 theses?
He was ordered to go to Rome
Who did Luther debate with instead of going to Rome?
Who protected Luther?
Frederick of Saxony (Elector of Saxony)
Luther rejected clerical _________
Luthers said that ____________ should reform the church of clergymen couldn't
The Pope gave Luther two months to recant his claims or be _________________
What was Luther's reaction to the letter of excommunication?
He publicly burned the letter
Charles V held the ____________ were Luther was questioned but still refused to recant
Diet of Worms
Swiss Humanist, most important early reformer other than Luther
Who did Luther greatly admire?
Who inspired Ulrich Zwingli?
Zwingli preached from the ______________ rather than church prescribed readings
What was Ulrich Zwingli's belief about religion?
It rested purely on scripture
Ulrich helped with the gradual reform of the church in _________
Term that came to mean all non catholic western Christians
Which two sacraments did the Protestants not reject?
Baptism and communion
What do Catholics call communion?
What is another name for communion?
Catholics believed this to be the process in which the words of a priest would turn the wine in bread into the actual body and blood of Christ during mass
Protestant ideas spread by __________
Luther translated the ___________ into German
People who believed that church should be completely separate from state
People who baptized adults
Radicals who believed the world was going to end to the German city of _________ predicting it would be the new Jerusalem and survive gods wrath
___________ in the sixteenth century led to a bad economy for German peasants
_______ seized land, imposed new rent etc
As a result of the bad economy and port treatment by nobles the peasants ______ in 1525
Who did Luther originally side with in the German Peasants Revolt?
Luther changes his ________, he said opposition to the church did not have to mean revolt against secular leaders
The __________ mercilessly crushed the revolt, 75,000 peasants were killed
Luther wrote this in response to the revolt
Against the murderous thieving hordes peasants
Former nun that Luther married
Katharina Von Bora
The course of the reformation was shaped by the election of the Habsburg prince ________ as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
What religion was Charles V?
As a result to the religious wars in Switzerland and Germany, Charles V called the ________________ to try to halt the religious split
Imperial Diet of Augsburg
The Lutherans statement of faith during the religious wars in Switzerland and Germany
In which the Holy Roman Empire officially recognized Lutheranism
Peace of Augsburg
The peace of Augsburg said that ___________ could choose their own religion
Most of northern and central Germany was ____________
Most of southern Germany was _________
There was no freedom of religion in _________ where princes ruled
Religious ________ were common
What was Charles V's ultimate goal?
With hope of unifying religion gone, Charles V ____________ and transferred his holdings to his brother Philip and imperial power to his brother Ferdinand
First area to accept reform after the Holy a Roman Empire under king Christian III
What helped spread Luthers ideas in Denmark?
Danish scholars studying at Wittenberg
In 1530 the king of officially split from the Catholic Church
What was the public reaction the Danish Kings split with the church like?
Who ruled Sweden?
Henry VIII married __________
Catherine of Aragon
Cathorine of Aragon was originally married to Henry's brother ________ before his death
Henry had to get a ______________ to marry his brothers widow
The marriage between Henry and Cathorine only produced one daughter: ______
How did Henry interpret his lack of sons?
Expression of gods disdain for his marriage to his brothers widow
Henry appealed to the pope to get his marriage with Cathorine ____________
Henry fell in love with the young ____________
Henry couldn't get an annulment because at the time Pope Clement VII was being controlled by ____________
Emperor Charles V
What was Charles V's relation to Cathorine?
He was her nephew
What was Henry's solution to his problem?
Remove the English church from papal jurisdiction
Who did Henry make the supreme head of the English Church?
What was the fate of Anne Boleyn?
She was charged with adulterous incest by Henry and beheaded
Who was Henry's third wife?
Jane Seymour finally produced a son for Henry, what was his name?
Henry was __________ and England retained the traditions of the Catholic Church
Henry dispersed English __________ because he wanted their wealth
Massive rebellion caused by opposition to the Church of England in the north, the leaders were arrested and executed
Pilgrimage of Grace
Loyalty to the Catholic Church was particularly strong here
Area around Dublin where English controlled
In the short reign of Henry's sick son _________ Protestant ideas significantly influenced English religion
He simplified the liturgy, invited Protestant theologians to England, and wrote "The Book of Common Prayer"
The brief reign of ____________ meant a sharp return back to Catholicism
Mary Tudor was the daughter of _____________
Cathorine of Aragon
Mary married her cousin ____________
Philip II of Spain
Mary executed hundreds of ___________ , and refugees fled
Mary's half sister ___________, daughter of Anne Boleyn, took the throne after her death
Elizabeth brought England back to ___________
Wanted all catholic remnants of church gone
Elizabeth _________ between Puritan and catholic extremes
Under the Elizabeth, subjects had to attend ___________ services but could practice any religion privately
Who was next in line to the throne after Elizabeth?
Her catholic cousin Mary queen of Scots
Why did the English execute Mary Queen of Scots?
She got involved in a plan to assassinate queen Elizabeth
Philip II sent the _______________ to attack England
English ships were _________ to those of the Spanish
_____________ greatly contributed to the English Victory
What did the defeat of the Spanish Armada ensure?
England would be safe from catholic threat
Most influential French Protestant
What were Jonn Calvins followers called?
John Calvin was born in France but lived in ___________
Birthplace of Calvinism
What was the title of John Calvin's book?
The institutes of the Christian religion
Calvins idea that God had already chosen who would be saved and therefore people could not work toward salvation
Group of people in Geneva charged with investigating and disciplining deviations from proper conduct
Dominant figure in the reform movement in Scotland
Developments within the Catholic Church after Protestant reformation were based on what two interrelated movements?
1) drive for internal reform linked to earlier movements
2) counter reformation opposing Protestants
The papal court became the center of the reform movement beginning with what pope?
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III ____________ clerical education and stricter control of clerical life
Founded to Combat Heresy
In which cardinals were appointed to arrest arrest and execute heretics
List of forbidden texts published by the Holy Office
Index of Prohibited Books
The roman inquisition had a large effect on _______ states but little effect anywhere else
Established by Pope Paul III with the goal to reform the Catholic Church and reconcile with Protestants
Council of Trent
What inhibited reconciliation between the Protestants and Catholics?
Disagreement between the importance of scripture vs tradition
The council of Trent reaffirmed what ?
The seven sacraments and the teaching of transubstantiation
The council of Trent forbade the sale of __________
How did the council of Trent reform marriage ?
In order for a marriage to valid, vows had to be made before a priest and witnesses
Who founded the Ursaline order of nuns?
Angela de Medici
What did the Ursulines focus on?
Who founded the Jesuits?
What was the goal of the Jesuits?
To spread the catholic faith
France and Spain signed what treaty to end the Habsburg Valois wars?
Treaty of Cambresis
Who won the Habsburg Valois wars?
France had to acknowledge Spanish dominance in ________
What were the effects of the Habsburg Valois wars on the French?
They had to increase taxes and borrow heavily to pay for it
What two ways did Francis I try to pay for the war with France?
-sale of public offices
- treaty with the papacy
What treaty with the papacy helped get the French out of debt?
Concordat of bologna
Where did Huguenots mostly live?
Why were so many French nobles Calvinists?
To rebel against the crown
Margaret of Valois was married to ____________
Henry of Navarre
Widespread _____________ led to the reformation
Charles V inherited Netherland and Belgium land split into _____________
Each province was ____________ and united only under a common ruler
Who did Charles V transfer power of the Netherlands and Belgium to?
Most of the Protestants in the Netherlands were __________
Spanish authorities attempted to suppress the _________ and raise ________; riots ensued
Philip sent troops under the _____________ to restore peace
Duke of Alva
The ten southern provinces (Belgium) came under control of the Spanish ___________
The 7 northern provinces led by holland formed the ______________
Union of Utrecht
The northern provinces were __________
The southern provinces were ________
Who competed for the Holy Roman Empire Throne in the Habsburg Valois wars?
Francis I and Charles I
Place where English and French courts meet when France looked to England for an alliance
Field of cloth and gold
Why did declaring Protestants in France illegal not work for Francis ?
40% of nobles were French
Who were the new rulers of France?
Henry II and Catherine De Medici
Catherine brought _______ to the crown
Why did Catherine become queen?
What did Catherine want for her sons?
For them to be able to rule one day
Who were the House of guise?
Who were the house of bourbon?
Who did Catherine marry her daughter to?
Henry of Navarre
To what house did Henry of Navarre belong?
House of bourbon
In which Catholics execute thousands of Huguenots
St Bartholomews day massacre
What did Henry of Navarre do in response to the outbreak of violence?
Converted to Catholicism but then back to Protestant
Who was in the war of 3 Henry's?
-Henry III (Margaret's brother)
-Henry of Guise
-Henry of Navarre
Who did Henry of guise have support from?
Catholic league and Habsburg Spain
Who did Henry of Navarre have support from?
Huguenots and other Protestant nations
Who did King Henry III have support from?
Who killed who????!!!!
Henry III and Henry of Navarre team up to get Henry of Guise killed
__________ was stabbed and proclaimed Henry of Navarre King
Why did Henry of Navarre convert to Catholicism?
To get support of Parisians
Henry of Navarre took the name __________
Passed by Henry IV, this extended limited toleration to Huguenots
Edict of Nantes
Buying or selling church offices
Giving lucrative jobs to ones children or relatives
Luther studied the _____________ and the _____________
Letters of Paul, New Testament
Being denied the sacraments therefore being endanger of hell
Why did the idea of splitting from the Catholic Church appeal to many princes?
It would mean an escape from financial obligations to the church, and confiscation of papal land
The belief that the presence of Christ was in the Eucharist, believed by Luther
Declared Henry VIII the supreme ruler of the Church of England
Act of Supremacy
One willing to compromise for the greater good, described Elizabeth
Who led the extreme catholic league?
What convinced Isabella to agree to finance Columbus's travels?
The promise that the spread of Christianity would be a main goal
Who crossed the Isthmus of Panama?
Vasco de Balboa
What was the main difference between Spanish and English settlements?
More women and children went to the English colonies
The Dutch settled ______________ in the new world