Ch 13: The Reformation and Religious Wars Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 13: The Reformation and Religious Wars > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13: The Reformation and Religious Wars Deck (184)
1

Anticlericalism was mainly focused on what three problems?

-clerical immortality
-clerical ignorance
-clerical pluralism

2

Holding more than one church office at a time

Clerical pluralism

3

Frequent absence from office by priests

Absenteeism

4

Many priests couldn't read in what language?

Latin

5

When priests held multiple offices, they would often hire ____________ to there jobs in their place

Poor priests

6

____________ bred local resentment

Clerical privileges

7

Clerics were exempt from ______________ like defending the city and paying taxes

Civic responsibility

8

German university professor and priest who propelled the reformation

Martin Luther

9

Martin Luther joined this religious order who taught, preached to, and assisted the poor

Augustinian Friars

10

Martin Luther was professor of the scriptures at what university?

Wittenberg

11

What did Luther believe about faith?

Faith was a free gift of gods grace

12

Pope Leo X authorized the sale of the ____________ indulgence to finance his plans in Rome

St. Peter's Indulgence

13

Archbishop who controlled the area by Wittenberg, enthusiastically promoted indulgences

Albert of Mainz

14

Document issued by the Catholic Church lessening time in purgatory

Indulgence

15

The collection of all the virtuous acts that Christ, the apostles, and saints did during their lives, purgatory could be shortened by drawing on it with indulgences

Treasure of merits

16

What friar ran Albert of Mainz' indulgence sale?

Johann Tetzel

17

Letter written by Luther that argued against the sale of indulgences

95 thesis

18

What was the result of luthers 95 theses?

He was ordered to go to Rome

19

Who did Luther debate with instead of going to Rome?

Johann Eck

20

Who protected Luther?

Frederick of Saxony (Elector of Saxony)

21

Luther rejected clerical _________

Celibacy

22

Luthers said that ____________ should reform the church of clergymen couldn't

Secular leaders

23

The Pope gave Luther two months to recant his claims or be _________________

Excommunicated

24

What was Luther's reaction to the letter of excommunication?

He publicly burned the letter

25

Charles V held the ____________ were Luther was questioned but still refused to recant

Diet of Worms

26

Swiss Humanist, most important early reformer other than Luther

Ulrich Zwingli

27

Who did Luther greatly admire?

Jan Hus

28

Who inspired Ulrich Zwingli?

Erasmus

29

Zwingli preached from the ______________ rather than church prescribed readings

New Testament

30

What was Ulrich Zwingli's belief about religion?

It rested purely on scripture

31

Ulrich helped with the gradual reform of the church in _________

Zurich

32

Term that came to mean all non catholic western Christians

Protestants

33

Which two sacraments did the Protestants not reject?

Baptism and communion

34

What do Catholics call communion?

Mass

35

What is another name for communion?

Eucharist

36

Catholics believed this to be the process in which the words of a priest would turn the wine in bread into the actual body and blood of Christ during mass

Transubstantiation

37

Protestant ideas spread by __________

Printing press

38

Luther translated the ___________ into German

New Testament

39

People who believed that church should be completely separate from state

Radicals

40

People who baptized adults

Anababtists

41

Radicals who believed the world was going to end to the German city of _________ predicting it would be the new Jerusalem and survive gods wrath

Munster

42

___________ in the sixteenth century led to a bad economy for German peasants

Crop failures

43

_______ seized land, imposed new rent etc

Nobles

44

As a result of the bad economy and port treatment by nobles the peasants ______ in 1525

Revolted

45

Who did Luther originally side with in the German Peasants Revolt?

Peasants

46

Luther changes his ________, he said opposition to the church did not have to mean revolt against secular leaders

Loyalty

47

The __________ mercilessly crushed the revolt, 75,000 peasants were killed

Nobility

48

Luther wrote this in response to the revolt

Against the murderous thieving hordes peasants

49

Former nun that Luther married

Katharina Von Bora

50

The course of the reformation was shaped by the election of the Habsburg prince ________ as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Charles V

51

What religion was Charles V?

Catholic

52

As a result to the religious wars in Switzerland and Germany, Charles V called the ________________ to try to halt the religious split

Imperial Diet of Augsburg

53

The Lutherans statement of faith during the religious wars in Switzerland and Germany

Augsburg confession

54

In which the Holy Roman Empire officially recognized Lutheranism

Peace of Augsburg

55

The peace of Augsburg said that ___________ could choose their own religion

States

56

Most of northern and central Germany was ____________

Lutheran

57

Most of southern Germany was _________

Catholic

58

There was no freedom of religion in _________ where princes ruled

Territories

59

Religious ________ were common

Refugees

60

What was Charles V's ultimate goal?

Unifying religion

61

With hope of unifying religion gone, Charles V ____________ and transferred his holdings to his brother Philip and imperial power to his brother Ferdinand

Abdicated

62

First area to accept reform after the Holy a Roman Empire under king Christian III

Denmark

63

What helped spread Luthers ideas in Denmark?

Danish scholars studying at Wittenberg

64

In 1530 the king of officially split from the Catholic Church

Denmark

65

What was the public reaction the Danish Kings split with the church like?

Positive

66

Who ruled Sweden?

Gustavus Vasa

67

Henry VIII married __________

Catherine of Aragon

68

Cathorine of Aragon was originally married to Henry's brother ________ before his death

Arthur

69

Henry had to get a ______________ to marry his brothers widow

Papal dispensation

70

The marriage between Henry and Cathorine only produced one daughter: ______

Mary

71

How did Henry interpret his lack of sons?

Expression of gods disdain for his marriage to his brothers widow

72

Henry appealed to the pope to get his marriage with Cathorine ____________

Annulled

73

Henry fell in love with the young ____________

Anne Boleyn

74

Henry couldn't get an annulment because at the time Pope Clement VII was being controlled by ____________

Emperor Charles V

75

What was Charles V's relation to Cathorine?

He was her nephew

76

What was Henry's solution to his problem?

Remove the English church from papal jurisdiction

77

Who did Henry make the supreme head of the English Church?

Himself

78

What was the fate of Anne Boleyn?

She was charged with adulterous incest by Henry and beheaded

79

Who was Henry's third wife?

Jane Seymour

80

Jane Seymour finally produced a son for Henry, what was his name?

Edward

81

Henry was __________ and England retained the traditions of the Catholic Church

Conservative

82

Henry dispersed English __________ because he wanted their wealth

Monasteries

83

Massive rebellion caused by opposition to the Church of England in the north, the leaders were arrested and executed

Pilgrimage of Grace

84

Loyalty to the Catholic Church was particularly strong here

Ireland

85

Area around Dublin where English controlled

The pale

86

In the short reign of Henry's sick son _________ Protestant ideas significantly influenced English religion

Edward VI

87

He simplified the liturgy, invited Protestant theologians to England, and wrote "The Book of Common Prayer"

Thomas Cranmer

88

The brief reign of ____________ meant a sharp return back to Catholicism

Mary Tudor

89

Mary Tudor was the daughter of _____________

Cathorine of Aragon

90

Mary married her cousin ____________

Philip II of Spain

91

Mary executed hundreds of ___________ , and refugees fled

Protestants

92

Mary's half sister ___________, daughter of Anne Boleyn, took the throne after her death

Elizabeth

93

Elizabeth brought England back to ___________

Protestantism

94

Wanted all catholic remnants of church gone

Puritans

95

Elizabeth _________ between Puritan and catholic extremes

Compromised

96

Under the Elizabeth, subjects had to attend ___________ services but could practice any religion privately

Protestant

97

Who was next in line to the throne after Elizabeth?

Her catholic cousin Mary queen of Scots

98

Why did the English execute Mary Queen of Scots?

She got involved in a plan to assassinate queen Elizabeth

99

Philip II sent the _______________ to attack England

Spanish Armada

100

English ships were _________ to those of the Spanish

Superior

101

_____________ greatly contributed to the English Victory

Bad weather

102

What did the defeat of the Spanish Armada ensure?

England would be safe from catholic threat

103

Most influential French Protestant

John Calvin

104

What were Jonn Calvins followers called?

Calvinists

105

John Calvin was born in France but lived in ___________

Switzerland

106

Birthplace of Calvinism

Geneva

107

What was the title of John Calvin's book?

The institutes of the Christian religion

108

Calvins idea that God had already chosen who would be saved and therefore people could not work toward salvation

Predestination

109

Group of people in Geneva charged with investigating and disciplining deviations from proper conduct

Consistory

110

Scottish Calvinists

Presbyterians

111

French Calvinists

Huguenots

112

Dominant figure in the reform movement in Scotland

John Knox

113

Developments within the Catholic Church after Protestant reformation were based on what two interrelated movements?

1) drive for internal reform linked to earlier movements
2) counter reformation opposing Protestants

114

The papal court became the center of the reform movement beginning with what pope?

Pope Paul III

115

Pope Paul III ____________ clerical education and stricter control of clerical life

Supported

116

Founded to Combat Heresy

Holy Office

117

In which cardinals were appointed to arrest arrest and execute heretics

Roman inquisition

118

List of forbidden texts published by the Holy Office

Index of Prohibited Books

119

The roman inquisition had a large effect on _______ states but little effect anywhere else

Roman

120

Established by Pope Paul III with the goal to reform the Catholic Church and reconcile with Protestants

Council of Trent

121

What inhibited reconciliation between the Protestants and Catholics?

Disagreement between the importance of scripture vs tradition

122

The council of Trent reaffirmed what ?

The seven sacraments and the teaching of transubstantiation

123

The council of Trent forbade the sale of __________

Indulgences

124

How did the council of Trent reform marriage ?

In order for a marriage to valid, vows had to be made before a priest and witnesses

125

Who founded the Ursaline order of nuns?

Angela de Medici

126

What did the Ursulines focus on?

Women's education

127

Who founded the Jesuits?

Ignatius Loyola

128

What was the goal of the Jesuits?

To spread the catholic faith

129

France and Spain signed what treaty to end the Habsburg Valois wars?

Treaty of Cambresis

130

Who won the Habsburg Valois wars?

Spain

131

France had to acknowledge Spanish dominance in ________

Italy

132

What were the effects of the Habsburg Valois wars on the French?

They had to increase taxes and borrow heavily to pay for it

133

What two ways did Francis I try to pay for the war with France?

-sale of public offices
- treaty with the papacy

134

What treaty with the papacy helped get the French out of debt?

Concordat of bologna

135

Where did Huguenots mostly live?

Major cities

136

Why were so many French nobles Calvinists?

To rebel against the crown

137

Margaret of Valois was married to ____________

Henry of Navarre

138

Widespread _____________ led to the reformation

Anticlericalism

139

Charles V inherited Netherland and Belgium land split into _____________

17 provinces

140

Each province was ____________ and united only under a common ruler

Self governing

141

Who did Charles V transfer power of the Netherlands and Belgium to?

Philip II

142

Most of the Protestants in the Netherlands were __________

Calvinists

143

Spanish authorities attempted to suppress the _________ and raise ________; riots ensued

Suppress, taxes

144

Philip sent troops under the _____________ to restore peace

Duke of Alva

145

The ten southern provinces (Belgium) came under control of the Spanish ___________

Habsburgs

146

The 7 northern provinces led by holland formed the ______________

Union of Utrecht

147

The northern provinces were __________

Protestant

148

The southern provinces were ________

Catholic

149

Who competed for the Holy Roman Empire Throne in the Habsburg Valois wars?

Francis I and Charles I

150

Place where English and French courts meet when France looked to England for an alliance

Field of cloth and gold

151

Why did declaring Protestants in France illegal not work for Francis ?

40% of nobles were French

152

Who were the new rulers of France?

Henry II and Catherine De Medici

153

Catherine brought _______ to the crown

Money

154

Why did Catherine become queen?

Henry died

155

What did Catherine want for her sons?

For them to be able to rule one day

156

Who were the House of guise?

Scot Catholics

157

Who were the house of bourbon?

French Protestants

158

Who did Catherine marry her daughter to?

Henry of Navarre

159

To what house did Henry of Navarre belong?

House of bourbon

160

In which Catholics execute thousands of Huguenots

St Bartholomews day massacre

161

What did Henry of Navarre do in response to the outbreak of violence?

Converted to Catholicism but then back to Protestant

162

Who was in the war of 3 Henry's?

-Henry III (Margaret's brother)
-Henry of Guise
-Henry of Navarre

163

Who did Henry of guise have support from?

Catholic league and Habsburg Spain

164

Who did Henry of Navarre have support from?

Huguenots and other Protestant nations

165

Who did King Henry III have support from?

No one

166

Who killed who????!!!!

Henry III and Henry of Navarre team up to get Henry of Guise killed

167

__________ was stabbed and proclaimed Henry of Navarre King

Henry III

168

Why did Henry of Navarre convert to Catholicism?

To get support of Parisians

169

Henry of Navarre took the name __________

Henry IV

170

Passed by Henry IV, this extended limited toleration to Huguenots

Edict of Nantes

171

Buying or selling church offices

Simony

172

Giving lucrative jobs to ones children or relatives

Nepotism

173

Luther studied the _____________ and the _____________

Letters of Paul, New Testament

174

Being denied the sacraments therefore being endanger of hell

Excommunication

175

Why did the idea of splitting from the Catholic Church appeal to many princes?

It would mean an escape from financial obligations to the church, and confiscation of papal land

176

The belief that the presence of Christ was in the Eucharist, believed by Luther

Consubstantiation

177

Declared Henry VIII the supreme ruler of the Church of England

Act of Supremacy

178

One willing to compromise for the greater good, described Elizabeth

Politique

179

Who led the extreme catholic league?

Guise family

180

What convinced Isabella to agree to finance Columbus's travels?

The promise that the spread of Christianity would be a main goal

181

Who crossed the Isthmus of Panama?

Vasco de Balboa

182

What was the main difference between Spanish and English settlements?

More women and children went to the English colonies

183

The Dutch settled ______________ in the new world

New Amsterdam

184

Who seized New Amsterdam and renamed it New York?

New York