Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (199)
1

The economy _______ after economic growth in the sixteenth century

Fell

2

What were reasons for the poor economy across Europe?

-climate change
-religious divide
-war

3

What were the results of the poor economy?

Hunger and population loss

4

Who was on the top level of the social hierarchy?

Monarch

5

The monarch was often viewed as a _________ being chosen by God to rule

Divine

6

Who was on the second level of the social hierarchy (in catholic countries)?

Clergy

7

Who was on the third level of the social hierarchy?

Nobles

8

The status of nobility was ___________

Inherited

9

Why could merchants not hold positions as nobles?

There was a Christian prejudice against merchants

10

How did merchants still acquire positions in the nobility?

By buying their positions

11

The vast majority of the population was in the last level of the social hierarchy: __________

Peasants and artisans

12

Society was __________

Patriarchal

13

Where did most people in the seventeenth century live?

The country

14

Farmers who owned enough land to feed themselves; they were the leaders of peasant villages

Independent farmers

15

What was the main element of a seventeenth century diet?

Bread

16

The period that experienced a colder and wetter climate in Europe was called ____________

The little ice age

17

What social group was hit the hardest by the food shortages and poverty?

Peasants

18

The truce created by the ____________ deteriorated as the religion of areas shifted

Peace of Augsburg

19

Lutheran princes formed what Union?

Protestant Union

20

The Catholics retaliated to the Protestant Union with the _____________

Catholic league

21

This group strongly supported the Holy Roman Empire and the preservation of Catholicism during the thirty years war

Habsburgs

22

What were the four phases of the thirty years war? (In order)

Bohemian phase
Danish phase
Swedish phase
French phase

23

In which the estate (parliament) of Bohemia threw two Holy Roman Empire emissaries out of a window

Defenestration of Prague

24

The bohemian phase of the thirty years war turned into a civil war between who?

Catholics and Protestants

25

At what battle did Catholics defeat the Protestants in the bohemian phase?

Battle of White Mountain

26

Who won the bohemian phase?

Catholics

27

The Danish phase was called so because of the leadership of _______________ of Denmark

King Christian IV

28

What religion was Christian IV?

Protestant

29

Who led the catholic army during the Danish phase of the war?

Albert of Wallenstein

30

Who was Holy Roman Emperor during the thirty years war?

Ferdinand II

31

Who issued the edict of restitution during th Danish phase of the war?

Ferdinand II

32

What did the Edict of Restitution say?

-all catholic property lost to Protestants was to be restored
-only Catholics and Lutherans could practice their faith

33

The Swedish phase of the war began with the arrival of Swedish King ______________ and his army in Germany

Gustavus Adolphus

34

What religion was Gustavus Adolphus?

Lutheran

35

Why did French minister Cardinal Richelieu subsidize the Swedish during the TYW?

In hopes to weaken Habsburg power

36

Who signed the Peace of Prague?

-Ferdinand II and the Elector of Saxony

37

What did the Treaty of Prague do?

-revoked the edict of restitution
-solidified terms established by the peace of Augsburg
-ended the civil war/religious aspect of the war

38

What was Cardinal Richelieu's response to his fear of a Habsburg resurgence of power?

He declared war on Spain

39

Treaty that ended the TYW

Peace of Westphalia

40

What did the peace of Westphalia do?

-reduced the power of the HRE
-recognized independence of Switzerland and the Dutch republic
-expanded the peace of Augsburg to include Calvinism
-gave freedom to make their own treaties and alliances to German states
-left Habsburg Spain isolated

41

Rulers who gathered all power under their personal control

Absolutists

42

Obliged to respect laws passed by representative institutions

Constitutionalists

43

What was the main similarity between absolutist and constitutionalist forms of government?

Both had the goal of increasing central control of their states

44

Rulers turned to ________ to meet the demands of expanding governments

Ministers

45

The seventeenth century saw a rise in military standards with many countries establishing ___________________

Permanent standing armies

46

French _________ were often officers that led men into battle

Nobles

47

Nobles had to _________ military position

Purchase

48

How did most countries pay for their expanding militaries?

Raising taxes

49

The sun King, seen as the epitome of the absolutists ruler

Louis XIV

50

As French power rose, __________ power faded

Spanish

51

This King of France acquired a country devastated by war and starvation, however he restored French virility

Henry IV

52

What did people call Henry IV?

Henri le grand

53

________________ allowed the French monarchy to maintain power

Cardinal Richelieu

54

Richelieu extended the use of __________

Intendants

55

What was Richelieu's religious goal for France?

Suppress Protestantism

56

Who was the chief minister for young Louis XIV?

Jules Mazarin

57

Violent uprisings triggered by growing royal control and high taxation, happened when Louis XIV was still a child

Fronde

58

Louis XIV did not have a _____________

First minister

59

What were Louis XIV's religious views?

Tolerant, but believes religious unity was essential to security of France

60

Louis XIV continued the policy of ______________ established by Richelieu

Protestant repression

61

In 1685, Louis XIV revoked the ________________

Edict of Nantes

62

Where did King Louis XIV move the royal court to?

The palace of Versailles

63

What did Louis require of his nobility in regards of Versailles?

They had to spend part of their year there

64

Louis was an enthusiastic ________________

Patron of the arts

65

Became the center of European politics

Versailles

66

French military strength was dependent on a good _________

Economy

67

Who was Louis XIV's controller general? ; he was a financial genius

Jean Babtiste Colbert

68

Collection of policies for the regulation of economic activities by the state

Mercantilism

69

What did Colbert insist about French trade/exports/imports?

The French should make all the goods they need

70

Colbert _______ domestic tariffs

Abolished

71

Colbert ____________ tariffs of foreign goods

Raised

72

With the hopes of competing with the Dutch for Asian trade, Colbert created what company?

Company of the East Indies

73

Why did Colbert want Canada for France?

Rich in natural resources and fertile soil

74

Louis XIV's Secretary of State for war

Marquis de Lavois

75

Instead of the local nobles, who employed soldiers for Lavois's army?

The French state

76

The French pursued a policy of _________

Expansion

77

The war of the Spanish succession was endured by _________ and ___________ French

Starving and malnourished

78

What sparked the war of the Spanish succession?

The death of the Spanish King Charles II

79

Who did Charles II's will give the crown to?

Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV's grandson)

80

Why was Charles's will so controversial?

It violated a treaty that agreed to divide Spain between the French and the HRE

81

Why did Louis break the treaty and accept the will?

He claimed to be following Spanish and French interests

82

After Louis accepted the will, who formed an alliance against him?

English, Dutch , Austrians, and Prussians

83

Ended the war of the Spanish succession, ended French expansion, and marked the beginning of the British empire

Peace of Utrecht

84

What did the peace of Utrecht say?

Philip was allowed to remain King on the understanding that the French and Spanish crowns would never be united
-France surrenders part of Canadian territories to England

85

By the end of the war of the Spanish succession , France was on the verge of __________

Bankruptcy

86

What was the main reason for the economic downfall of Spain?

Trade with the new world fell

87

How did the Spanish crown pay their debts?

Devaluing coinage, declaring bankruptcy

88

The expulsion of __________ from Spain significantly reduced skilled workers

Muslims

89

King Philip IV of France led the management of many kingdoms to who?

Olivares

90

What was Olivares' view on how to achieve restoration do the Spanish empire?

Return to imperialism

91

Ended the French/Spanish conflict, Spanish surrenders some territory to French

Treaty of Pyrenees

92

In 1688 Spain recognized the independence of __________

Portugal

93

Eastern peasants had lost the ability to ____________

Own land

94

The east saw a growth in _____________

Commercial agriculture

95

How did landlords undermine the privilege of the towns and urban class?

Sold products directly to foreigners instead of merchants first

96

In the east, the population of towns and the urban middle class _________

Decreased

97

The _______________ emerged from the thirty years war exhausted and impoverished

Austrian Habsburgs

98

Who was the Austrian ruler who led the defeat of Bohemia?

Ferdinand II

99

After controlling Bohemia, the Habsburgs turned towards __________

Hungary

100

How did the Hungarian nobility thwart full development of Habsburg absolutism?

Revolts

101

Who led a wide scale revolt against the Habsburg ruler?

Prince Francis Rakoczky

102

What factors promoted unity and loyalty in Austria?

Zealous Catholicism and German language

103

Political and cultural center of Austrian empire

Vienna

104

What was the name of the great Austrian palace at Vienna?

Schönbrunn

105

What family ruled Prussia?

Hohenzollern

106

What was the power of electors?

Elect Holy Roman Emperor

107

The great elector

Frederick William

108

Frederick William was determine to unify what 3 provinces?

Brandenburg, Prussia, and scattered territories along the Rhine

109

Nobility and landowning class that dominated Prussia

Junkers

110

What did the great elector give the Junkers in exchange for a tax to finance a permanent standing army?

Reconfirm their authority over serfs

111

The soldier King, fully instilled absolutism in Prussia

Frederick William I

112

Who did Frederick William I enlist to lead the army?

Junkers

113

The ottomans were religiously _________

Tolerant

114

The rule of the __________ set the role for Russian absolutism

Mongol Khan

115

Expanded the principality of Moscow toward the Baltic Sea, declared independence of Moscow from the Mongols

Ivan III

116

What did the people call Ivan III?

Ivan the great

117

High ranked Russian nobles who helped Moscow princes consolidate power

Boyars

118

Kings of Russia, thought they were holy rulers

Tsar

119

Ivan the terrible, defeated remnants of Mongol power

Ivan IV

120

What did Ivan IV do after his wife's death?

Began persecuting people he was suspicious of opposing him

121

Ivan IV created a new ________ dependent on the tsar for land and titles

Nobility

122

Serfs fled Russia and joined ___________

Cossacks

123

Chaotic period after the death of Ivan IV in which his relatives struggled for power and people suffered draught, crop failure, and plague

Time of trouble

124

The Russian nobles appointed ____________ to the throne

Michael Romanov

125

What did Romanov do?

-Reconsolidated central authority
-didn't improve life of peasantry much

126

Cossack who gathered an army of peasants and rebelled

Stenka Razin

127

Heir to the state building efforts of Romanov, embarked on a campaign to complete the process

Peter the great

128

Peter the great wanted to _______ the army and ________ expansion

Build, continue

129

Peter the great formed an alliance with who to wage a war against Sweden?

Denmark, Poland

130

What peters goals of war with Sweden?

Secure access to Baltic Sea, expansion

131

War between Sweden and Russia

The great northern war

132

What did Peter the great require of his nobles in regard to the military?

They had to serve for life

133

Peters new army _______ Sweden

Defeated

134

The top ranks of the ottoman beurocracy were staffed by the ___________

Slave corps

135

Some talented slaves rose to the top while the less fortunate were forced to join the core of the sultans army: ____________

the janissary corps

136

System in which the Ottoman Empire divided their subjects into religious communities ruled by religious leaders

Millet system

137

Sultans married only elite women but had many ___________

Concubines

138

Sultan who undid marriage politics

Sultan Silberman

139

Two countries that practiced constitutionalism

England , Netherlands

140

In order to be constitutionalist, you had to have a _________

Constitution

141

England established a _______________

Constitutional monarchy

142

Who succeeded queen Elizabeth of England ?

James Stuart (James I)

143

Where had James previously ruled?

Scotland

144

James I was an __________

Absolutist

145

Who succeeded James I?

Charles I

146

There were disagreements between the crown and the ___________

House of Commons

147

Believed that the Protestant reformation had not done enough to purify the church

Puritans

148

_______ were a catholic tradition still practiced in England

Bishops

149

Why did James want to keep bishops?

They were supporters of the throne

150

Who did Charles I controversially support?

Archbishop Canterbury William Laud

151

Charles I ____________ parliament

Dissolved

152

The long parliament passed this, said the King had to summon parliament at least once every three years


Triennial act

153

Charles created a separate army from ________ and its cavalry

Nobility

154

Parliament formed the _________

New model army

155

The new model army ________the Kings army

Defeated

156

Who came to lead the new model army?

Oliver Cromewell

157

What did Cromwell do with Charles?

Captures him

158

Part of parliament leftover after Cromwell dismissed anti Cromwell members

Rump parliament

159

Charles was put on trial and __________

Beheaded

160

The _________ was abolished with the execution of Charles I

Monarchy

161

Philosopher who said that the only way for peace was a social contract between ruler and subjects, book: leviathan

Thomas Hobbs

162

Republican government established by Cromwell

Pretectorate

163

What was the name of the constitution established by Cromwell?

Instrument of Government

164

Why was the constitution never endorsed?

Cromwell dismissed parliament

165

Cromwell game all Christians except _________ freedom to religion

Catholics

166

Cromwell reconquered _________ and forbade Catholicism

Ireland

167

Passed by Cromwell, required that English goods be transported on English ships

Navigation act

168

Prectocterate collapsed when Cromwell _______

Died

169

The restoration brought ______________ to the throne

Charles II

170

Denied people outside of the Anglican Church right to vote, hold office, teach, attend university, etc. passed by Charles II

Test act

171

Why was Charles II angry with parliament?

He thought he didn't receive enough income

172

Charles II entered a secret agreement with his cousin, ___________

Louis XIV

173

What were the terms of the agreement between Charles II and King Louis XIV

-French would give Charles money if he relaxed anti-catholic laws, gradually recatholicise England, and convert

174

Charles II's catholic brother ________ Becomes king after Charles's death

James II

175

How did James II violate the test act?

Appointing Catholics to positions etc

176

James II and his family fled from ______

London

177

Who was offered the crown after James fled?

His Protestant daughter Mary and Dutch husband Prince William of Orange

178

In which the King and queen were replaced with little bloodshed

Glorious revolution

179

What laws did parliament pass after the glorious revolution?

-monarchs could not dissolve parliament
-parliament must be called at least every three years
- no peacetime standing army
-Catholics could not possess arms or inherit throne

180

Mary and William signed ___________

The English bill of rights

181

English political philosopher who defended republican governments

John Locke

182

What was John Lockes book called?

Second treatise of civil government

183

What were Lockes natural rights?

Life, liberty, property

184

Led cabinet, became first prime minister

Sir Robert Walpole

185

__________ and __________ power in England was held by the leading minister

Legislative, executive

186

In the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands won independence from ________

Spain

187

Netherlands independence was recognized by the ______________

Treaty of Westaphalia

188

This was called the __________ age of the Netherlands

Golden

189

The Dutch rejected monarchy and established a _________

Republic

190

Wealthy businessmen, held an oligarchy, handled domestic affairs in Dutch estates

Regents

191

Who handled domestic affairs in the Dutch government?

Federal assemblies

192

Dutch province with the largest navy and most wealth

Holland

193

Executive officers in each province, usually held by house of orange

Stadholder

194

Dutch political success rested on _____________

Commercial prosperity

195

The Dutch dominated ___________

Shipping

196

The __________ spurred the growth f baroque art

Catholic Church

197

Most influential baroque painter

Peter Paul Rubens

198

Most influential baroque composer/musician

Johann Bach

199

The 17the century is also known as the ____________

Age of crises