Flashcards in Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (199)
The economy _______ after economic growth in the sixteenth century
What were reasons for the poor economy across Europe?
What were the results of the poor economy?
Hunger and population loss
Who was on the top level of the social hierarchy?
The monarch was often viewed as a _________ being chosen by God to rule
Who was on the second level of the social hierarchy (in catholic countries)?
Who was on the third level of the social hierarchy?
The status of nobility was ___________
Why could merchants not hold positions as nobles?
There was a Christian prejudice against merchants
How did merchants still acquire positions in the nobility?
By buying their positions
The vast majority of the population was in the last level of the social hierarchy: __________
Peasants and artisans
Society was __________
Where did most people in the seventeenth century live?
Farmers who owned enough land to feed themselves; they were the leaders of peasant villages
What was the main element of a seventeenth century diet?
The period that experienced a colder and wetter climate in Europe was called ____________
The little ice age
What social group was hit the hardest by the food shortages and poverty?
The truce created by the ____________ deteriorated as the religion of areas shifted
Peace of Augsburg
Lutheran princes formed what Union?
The Catholics retaliated to the Protestant Union with the _____________
This group strongly supported the Holy Roman Empire and the preservation of Catholicism during the thirty years war
What were the four phases of the thirty years war? (In order)
In which the estate (parliament) of Bohemia threw two Holy Roman Empire emissaries out of a window
Defenestration of Prague
The bohemian phase of the thirty years war turned into a civil war between who?
Catholics and Protestants
At what battle did Catholics defeat the Protestants in the bohemian phase?
Battle of White Mountain
Who won the bohemian phase?
The Danish phase was called so because of the leadership of _______________ of Denmark
King Christian IV
What religion was Christian IV?
Who led the catholic army during the Danish phase of the war?
Albert of Wallenstein
Who was Holy Roman Emperor during the thirty years war?
Who issued the edict of restitution during th Danish phase of the war?
What did the Edict of Restitution say?
-all catholic property lost to Protestants was to be restored
-only Catholics and Lutherans could practice their faith
The Swedish phase of the war began with the arrival of Swedish King ______________ and his army in Germany
What religion was Gustavus Adolphus?
Why did French minister Cardinal Richelieu subsidize the Swedish during the TYW?
In hopes to weaken Habsburg power
Who signed the Peace of Prague?
-Ferdinand II and the Elector of Saxony
What did the Treaty of Prague do?
-revoked the edict of restitution
-solidified terms established by the peace of Augsburg
-ended the civil war/religious aspect of the war
What was Cardinal Richelieu's response to his fear of a Habsburg resurgence of power?
He declared war on Spain
Treaty that ended the TYW
Peace of Westphalia
What did the peace of Westphalia do?
-reduced the power of the HRE
-recognized independence of Switzerland and the Dutch republic
-expanded the peace of Augsburg to include Calvinism
-gave freedom to make their own treaties and alliances to German states
-left Habsburg Spain isolated
Rulers who gathered all power under their personal control
Obliged to respect laws passed by representative institutions
What was the main similarity between absolutist and constitutionalist forms of government?
Both had the goal of increasing central control of their states
Rulers turned to ________ to meet the demands of expanding governments
The seventeenth century saw a rise in military standards with many countries establishing ___________________
Permanent standing armies
French _________ were often officers that led men into battle
Nobles had to _________ military position
How did most countries pay for their expanding militaries?
The sun King, seen as the epitome of the absolutists ruler
As French power rose, __________ power faded
This King of France acquired a country devastated by war and starvation, however he restored French virility
What did people call Henry IV?
Henri le grand
________________ allowed the French monarchy to maintain power
Richelieu extended the use of __________
What was Richelieu's religious goal for France?
Who was the chief minister for young Louis XIV?
Violent uprisings triggered by growing royal control and high taxation, happened when Louis XIV was still a child
Louis XIV did not have a _____________
What were Louis XIV's religious views?
Tolerant, but believes religious unity was essential to security of France
Louis XIV continued the policy of ______________ established by Richelieu
In 1685, Louis XIV revoked the ________________
Edict of Nantes
Where did King Louis XIV move the royal court to?
The palace of Versailles
What did Louis require of his nobility in regards of Versailles?
They had to spend part of their year there
Louis was an enthusiastic ________________
Patron of the arts
Became the center of European politics
French military strength was dependent on a good _________
Who was Louis XIV's controller general? ; he was a financial genius
Jean Babtiste Colbert
Collection of policies for the regulation of economic activities by the state
What did Colbert insist about French trade/exports/imports?
The French should make all the goods they need
Colbert _______ domestic tariffs
Colbert ____________ tariffs of foreign goods
With the hopes of competing with the Dutch for Asian trade, Colbert created what company?
Company of the East Indies
Why did Colbert want Canada for France?
Rich in natural resources and fertile soil
Louis XIV's Secretary of State for war
Marquis de Lavois
Instead of the local nobles, who employed soldiers for Lavois's army?
The French state
The French pursued a policy of _________
The war of the Spanish succession was endured by _________ and ___________ French
Starving and malnourished
What sparked the war of the Spanish succession?
The death of the Spanish King Charles II
Who did Charles II's will give the crown to?
Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV's grandson)
Why was Charles's will so controversial?
It violated a treaty that agreed to divide Spain between the French and the HRE
Why did Louis break the treaty and accept the will?
He claimed to be following Spanish and French interests
After Louis accepted the will, who formed an alliance against him?
English, Dutch , Austrians, and Prussians
Ended the war of the Spanish succession, ended French expansion, and marked the beginning of the British empire
Peace of Utrecht
What did the peace of Utrecht say?
Philip was allowed to remain King on the understanding that the French and Spanish crowns would never be united
-France surrenders part of Canadian territories to England
By the end of the war of the Spanish succession , France was on the verge of __________
What was the main reason for the economic downfall of Spain?
Trade with the new world fell
How did the Spanish crown pay their debts?
Devaluing coinage, declaring bankruptcy
The expulsion of __________ from Spain significantly reduced skilled workers
King Philip IV of France led the management of many kingdoms to who?
What was Olivares' view on how to achieve restoration do the Spanish empire?
Return to imperialism
Ended the French/Spanish conflict, Spanish surrenders some territory to French
Treaty of Pyrenees
In 1688 Spain recognized the independence of __________
Eastern peasants had lost the ability to ____________
The east saw a growth in _____________
How did landlords undermine the privilege of the towns and urban class?
Sold products directly to foreigners instead of merchants first
In the east, the population of towns and the urban middle class _________
The _______________ emerged from the thirty years war exhausted and impoverished
Who was the Austrian ruler who led the defeat of Bohemia?
After controlling Bohemia, the Habsburgs turned towards __________
How did the Hungarian nobility thwart full development of Habsburg absolutism?
Who led a wide scale revolt against the Habsburg ruler?
Prince Francis Rakoczky
What factors promoted unity and loyalty in Austria?
Zealous Catholicism and German language
Political and cultural center of Austrian empire
What was the name of the great Austrian palace at Vienna?
What family ruled Prussia?
What was the power of electors?
Elect Holy Roman Emperor
The great elector
Frederick William was determine to unify what 3 provinces?
Brandenburg, Prussia, and scattered territories along the Rhine
Nobility and landowning class that dominated Prussia
What did the great elector give the Junkers in exchange for a tax to finance a permanent standing army?
Reconfirm their authority over serfs
The soldier King, fully instilled absolutism in Prussia
Frederick William I
Who did Frederick William I enlist to lead the army?
The ottomans were religiously _________
The rule of the __________ set the role for Russian absolutism
Expanded the principality of Moscow toward the Baltic Sea, declared independence of Moscow from the Mongols
What did the people call Ivan III?
Ivan the great
High ranked Russian nobles who helped Moscow princes consolidate power
Kings of Russia, thought they were holy rulers
Ivan the terrible, defeated remnants of Mongol power
What did Ivan IV do after his wife's death?
Began persecuting people he was suspicious of opposing him
Ivan IV created a new ________ dependent on the tsar for land and titles
Serfs fled Russia and joined ___________
Chaotic period after the death of Ivan IV in which his relatives struggled for power and people suffered draught, crop failure, and plague
Time of trouble
The Russian nobles appointed ____________ to the throne
What did Romanov do?
-Reconsolidated central authority
-didn't improve life of peasantry much
Cossack who gathered an army of peasants and rebelled
Heir to the state building efforts of Romanov, embarked on a campaign to complete the process
Peter the great
Peter the great wanted to _______ the army and ________ expansion
Peter the great formed an alliance with who to wage a war against Sweden?
What peters goals of war with Sweden?
Secure access to Baltic Sea, expansion
War between Sweden and Russia
The great northern war
What did Peter the great require of his nobles in regard to the military?
They had to serve for life
Peters new army _______ Sweden
The top ranks of the ottoman beurocracy were staffed by the ___________
Some talented slaves rose to the top while the less fortunate were forced to join the core of the sultans army: ____________
the janissary corps
System in which the Ottoman Empire divided their subjects into religious communities ruled by religious leaders
Sultans married only elite women but had many ___________
Sultan who undid marriage politics
Two countries that practiced constitutionalism
England , Netherlands
In order to be constitutionalist, you had to have a _________
England established a _______________
Who succeeded queen Elizabeth of England ?
James Stuart (James I)
Where had James previously ruled?
James I was an __________
Who succeeded James I?
There were disagreements between the crown and the ___________
House of Commons
Believed that the Protestant reformation had not done enough to purify the church
_______ were a catholic tradition still practiced in England
Why did James want to keep bishops?
They were supporters of the throne
Who did Charles I controversially support?
Archbishop Canterbury William Laud
Charles I ____________ parliament
The long parliament passed this, said the King had to summon parliament at least once every three years
Charles created a separate army from ________ and its cavalry
Parliament formed the _________
New model army
The new model army ________the Kings army
Who came to lead the new model army?
What did Cromwell do with Charles?
Part of parliament leftover after Cromwell dismissed anti Cromwell members
Charles was put on trial and __________
The _________ was abolished with the execution of Charles I
Philosopher who said that the only way for peace was a social contract between ruler and subjects, book: leviathan
Republican government established by Cromwell
What was the name of the constitution established by Cromwell?
Instrument of Government
Why was the constitution never endorsed?
Cromwell dismissed parliament
Cromwell game all Christians except _________ freedom to religion
Cromwell reconquered _________ and forbade Catholicism
Passed by Cromwell, required that English goods be transported on English ships
Prectocterate collapsed when Cromwell _______
The restoration brought ______________ to the throne
Denied people outside of the Anglican Church right to vote, hold office, teach, attend university, etc. passed by Charles II
Why was Charles II angry with parliament?
He thought he didn't receive enough income
Charles II entered a secret agreement with his cousin, ___________
What were the terms of the agreement between Charles II and King Louis XIV
-French would give Charles money if he relaxed anti-catholic laws, gradually recatholicise England, and convert
Charles II's catholic brother ________ Becomes king after Charles's death
How did James II violate the test act?
Appointing Catholics to positions etc
James II and his family fled from ______
Who was offered the crown after James fled?
His Protestant daughter Mary and Dutch husband Prince William of Orange
In which the King and queen were replaced with little bloodshed
What laws did parliament pass after the glorious revolution?
-monarchs could not dissolve parliament
-parliament must be called at least every three years
- no peacetime standing army
-Catholics could not possess arms or inherit throne
Mary and William signed ___________
The English bill of rights
English political philosopher who defended republican governments
What was John Lockes book called?
Second treatise of civil government
What were Lockes natural rights?
Life, liberty, property
Led cabinet, became first prime minister
Sir Robert Walpole
__________ and __________ power in England was held by the leading minister
In the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands won independence from ________
Netherlands independence was recognized by the ______________
Treaty of Westaphalia
This was called the __________ age of the Netherlands
The Dutch rejected monarchy and established a _________
Wealthy businessmen, held an oligarchy, handled domestic affairs in Dutch estates
Who handled domestic affairs in the Dutch government?
Dutch province with the largest navy and most wealth
Executive officers in each province, usually held by house of orange
Dutch political success rested on _____________
The Dutch dominated ___________
The __________ spurred the growth f baroque art
Most influential baroque painter
Peter Paul Rubens
Most influential baroque composer/musician