Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (199)
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1

The economy _______ after economic growth in the sixteenth century

Fell

2

What were reasons for the poor economy across Europe?

-climate change
-religious divide
-war

3

What were the results of the poor economy?

Hunger and population loss

4

Who was on the top level of the social hierarchy?

Monarch

5

The monarch was often viewed as a _________ being chosen by God to rule

Divine

6

Who was on the second level of the social hierarchy (in catholic countries)?

Clergy

7

Who was on the third level of the social hierarchy?

Nobles

8

The status of nobility was ___________

Inherited

9

Why could merchants not hold positions as nobles?

There was a Christian prejudice against merchants

10

How did merchants still acquire positions in the nobility?

By buying their positions

11

The vast majority of the population was in the last level of the social hierarchy: __________

Peasants and artisans

12

Society was __________

Patriarchal

13

Where did most people in the seventeenth century live?

The country

14

Farmers who owned enough land to feed themselves; they were the leaders of peasant villages

Independent farmers

15

What was the main element of a seventeenth century diet?

Bread

16

The period that experienced a colder and wetter climate in Europe was called ____________

The little ice age

17

What social group was hit the hardest by the food shortages and poverty?

Peasants

18

The truce created by the ____________ deteriorated as the religion of areas shifted

Peace of Augsburg

19

Lutheran princes formed what Union?

Protestant Union

20

The Catholics retaliated to the Protestant Union with the _____________

Catholic league

21

This group strongly supported the Holy Roman Empire and the preservation of Catholicism during the thirty years war

Habsburgs

22

What were the four phases of the thirty years war? (In order)

Bohemian phase
Danish phase
Swedish phase
French phase

23

In which the estate (parliament) of Bohemia threw two Holy Roman Empire emissaries out of a window

Defenestration of Prague

24

The bohemian phase of the thirty years war turned into a civil war between who?

Catholics and Protestants

25

At what battle did Catholics defeat the Protestants in the bohemian phase?

Battle of White Mountain

26

Who won the bohemian phase?

Catholics

27

The Danish phase was called so because of the leadership of _______________ of Denmark

King Christian IV

28

What religion was Christian IV?

Protestant

29

Who led the catholic army during the Danish phase of the war?

Albert of Wallenstein

30

Who was Holy Roman Emperor during the thirty years war?

Ferdinand II