Flashcards in Ch 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism Deck (199)
The economy _______ after economic growth in the sixteenth century
What were reasons for the poor economy across Europe?
What were the results of the poor economy?
Hunger and population loss
Who was on the top level of the social hierarchy?
The monarch was often viewed as a _________ being chosen by God to rule
Who was on the second level of the social hierarchy (in catholic countries)?
Who was on the third level of the social hierarchy?
The status of nobility was ___________
Why could merchants not hold positions as nobles?
There was a Christian prejudice against merchants
How did merchants still acquire positions in the nobility?
By buying their positions
The vast majority of the population was in the last level of the social hierarchy: __________
Peasants and artisans
Society was __________
Where did most people in the seventeenth century live?
Farmers who owned enough land to feed themselves; they were the leaders of peasant villages
What was the main element of a seventeenth century diet?
The period that experienced a colder and wetter climate in Europe was called ____________
The little ice age
What social group was hit the hardest by the food shortages and poverty?
The truce created by the ____________ deteriorated as the religion of areas shifted
Peace of Augsburg
Lutheran princes formed what Union?
The Catholics retaliated to the Protestant Union with the _____________
This group strongly supported the Holy Roman Empire and the preservation of Catholicism during the thirty years war
What were the four phases of the thirty years war? (In order)
In which the estate (parliament) of Bohemia threw two Holy Roman Empire emissaries out of a window
Defenestration of Prague
The bohemian phase of the thirty years war turned into a civil war between who?
Catholics and Protestants
At what battle did Catholics defeat the Protestants in the bohemian phase?
Battle of White Mountain
Who won the bohemian phase?
The Danish phase was called so because of the leadership of _______________ of Denmark
King Christian IV
What religion was Christian IV?
Who led the catholic army during the Danish phase of the war?
Albert of Wallenstein