Flashcards in Ch 26: The Age of Anxiety Deck (100)
German philosopher who believed that reason, progress, and respectability were constructs that suffocated excellence, rejected religion though he was the son of a lutheran minister
Nietzsche's book in which he said that the west had overemphasized rationality and stifled authentic passions and animal instincts
Nietzsche warned that wester society was entering a period of _______, the idea that human life is without meaning, truth, or purpose
Nietzsche's ideas were fundamental to the rise of the philosophy of _____________
idea that what we know myst be base on empirically proven facts, concluded that theology was meaningless because it could not be proven
What Austrian philosopher became associated with Logical positivism
Wittgenstein believed that philosophy should focus on the study of _________
Where was logical positivism most popular as World War I progressed?
english speaking countries
a philosophy that stresses the meaningless of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world
As World War I progressed, where was existentialism most popular?
What were most existentialists beliefs in god and religion ?
most were atheists
How did existentialism gain popularity in Germany in the 1920's?
Philosophers Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers found an audience in post war university students
When and where did existentialism become the most popular?
France during and immediately after World War II
The decades after World War I witnessed a ________ revival
people who stressed human's sinful nature, their need for faith, and the mystery of god's forgiveness
Christian revival was spread by the work of _____________
What was Kierkegaard's main belief on religion?
It was impossible to prove hesitance of god, but rejected the notion that christianity was an empty practice
Kierkegaard's essay that said that people must take a leap of faith and accept an unknowable but awesome god
Sickness Unto Death
Protestant theologian who said that religion shouldn't be approached with reason, but with trust and obedience
This new wave of science challenged the comfort that came with the rational viewpoint that all science could be empirically proven
The New Physics
What was the first step to New Physics?
The discovery that atoms were made of smaller particles
What was the implication of Planck's quantum theory?
People began to question whether matter and energy were the same thing
Einstein's theory that time and space are relative to the observer and only the speed of light remains constant
Theory of Special Relativity
What was this age in physics called?
the heroic age in physics
Scientist who showed that the atom could be split
principle that nature itself is unknowable and unpredictable, theorized by Werner Heisenberg
Psychologist who theorized that human behavior was driven by the unconscious and was irrational
What were the three structures of the self described by Freud?
id, ego, superego
Freud's book that said that civilization was possible only when people renounce their irrational instincts to live peacefully in groups
"Civilization and it's Discontents"
Label givent to the artistic and cultural movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression
What country pioneered the new architecture?
The United States
Who led the Chicago School of Architects?
belief that buildings should serve the purpose they were made for with little extra ornamentation
Who wrote "Towards a New Architecture" that laid the out the guidelines to revolutionize building design
Where was european architecture centered before the rise of Hitler?
German speaking countries
Interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts in Weimar that brought together leading architects, designers, and theatrical innovators
Who founded the Bauhaus school?
Walter Gropius `
Artists in this movement tried to portray their sensory impressions and looked to the world around them for subject matter. Not precise.
Built on impressionist color and light, but added a deep psychological meaning to their art
Who founded cubism?
Art movement founded in Zurich that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct, believed that the war had shown that life was meaningless so art should be too
Art movement influenced by Freudian Psychology, portrayed imaged of the unconscious in their art
literary technique that used internal monologues to explore the human psyche
stream of consciousness technique
writers rejected the idea of ______
Wrote dark novels about helps individuals like "The Metamorphoses"
Modern music flourished in ______ and _______
How did transportation contribute to a consumer culture?
It allowed for the expansion of national markets
The marketing of fashion, personal care products, and makeup encouraged a cult of youthful _________
travel ________ with the rise of consumer society
_____________ epitomized the new consumer society
How did consumer society undermine social differences?
-It democratized society- everyone with means could purchase goods
How did consumer society reinforce social differences?
-Companies marketed goods to specific groups
-The cost of some things meant that only the wealthy could purchase them
how did consumer society transform women's lives?
-alliances and technology changed housework
-public visibly for girls and women
Image of the modern and industrial working women in the 1920's
How was the "modern girl" a stereotype in some ways?
-product of marketing campaigns dedicated to selling goods
-few young women could afford to live up the image, even with jobs
How did consumerism and World War I effect women's overall behavior
Where was the influence of mass culture most evident?
Why did World War I quicken the pace of entertainment media?
National leaders realized that movies and radios where quick ways to spread propaganda
What country dominated the competitive film business?
The United States
Who directed the series of epic films in Russia that dramatized the communist view of Russian History?
________ encouraged cinema in russia
Documentary propaganda directed by Leni Riefenstahl based not the 1934 Nazi Party Rally at Nuremberg
Triumph of The Will
Who controlled european radio broadcasting?
How did France view the Treaty of Versailles?
France wanted the reparations that Germany owed them and saw them necessary to their growth and reconstruction after the war
How did Britain view the Treaty of Versailles?
They saw a healthy Germany as vital to the British economy because Germany had been Britain's second largest market before WWI
Book written by British Economist John Keynes, said that harsh reparations on Germany would hurt all countries and encourage Bolshevism, renounced the Treaty of Versailles
The Economic Consequence of Peace
Britain was suspicious of the large french ________
Why was Britain suspicious of French Foreign Policy?
france had turned to the newly formed Central european nations as ally's
What happened when Germany was due to make their second payment?
They said that they were unable to pay any more, and proposed a moratorium on reparations for three years
How did the English feel about the proposal of a moratorium?
They were willing to accept it
How did the French respond to Germany's proposal?
They invaded the Ruhr district, the heart of German industry
How did the German government respond to the french occupation of Ruhr valley?
they ordered the ruhr valley workers to stop working and offer passive resistance to the french
How did the French respond to the passive resistance?
They sealed of Rhineland and the Ruhr form Germany, letting in only food to prevent starvation
How did the German government try to fix their financial problems?
Printing more money
What moderate leader came to power in Germany in 1923?
How did Gustav Stressmann attempt to fix the situation in the Ruhr Valley?
-Called of the passive resistance in the Ruhr
-Agreed in principle to pay for the reparations
-asked for the reexamination go Germany's ability to pay
Who led the international committee of financial experts who met to reexamine the German reparations in 1924?
What did the Dawes Plan entail?
-Germany's yearly reparations would be reduced and linked to the amount of economic output
-Would receive large loans from the unites states
Where did European leaders sign a series of agreements in 1925?
Germany and France accepted their common ________
Germany didn't settle permanent borders on the ________
Pact that renounced war as an instrument of international policy
Most of the working class in Germany supported what party?
In France, what two parties were fighting for support of the working class?
Socialist and Communists
What was the biggest problem in the United Kingdom?
This party took the place of the Liberal Party in Great Britain, they championed the working class and promoted greater social equality
The Labour Party
Worldwide economic depression from 1929-1939, unique in its severity and duration; slow and uneven recovery
What sparked the worldwide depression?
The US stock market crash in October of 1929
it became hard for european businesses to ______________
How did frantic europeans react to the bank situation?
They frantically withdrew their money from banks
Countries began to go off of the _______ standard of currency to prevent from lowering the value of their currency?
Countries began to follow the US example of raising _____________
What 2 factors led to the worldwide depression?
-The international economy lacked leadership able to maintain stable
-Instead of raising spending to stimulate economy, countries cut spending
How did most countries deal with the poverty that came with the mass unemployment?
They offered aid or benefits
What democratic nation responded the most successfully to the Great Depression?
What factors helped Britain come back from the depression?
-Increase in the new technology and automobile industries
-focus on national not international markets
Why did the Great Depression hit France later than other countries?
France was less industrialized and had a more isolated economy
Short lived New Deal inspired alliance in France led by Leon Blum that encouraged union movement and launched social reform
What became the strongest party in France?
The Socialist Party, led by Blum