Ch 26: The Age of Anxiety Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 26: The Age of Anxiety Deck (100)
1

German philosopher who believed that reason, progress, and respectability were constructs that suffocated excellence, rejected religion though he was the son of a lutheran minister

Friederich Nietzsche

2

Nietzsche's book in which he said that the west had overemphasized rationality and stifled authentic passions and animal instincts

Untimely Meditations

3

Nietzsche warned that wester society was entering a period of _______, the idea that human life is without meaning, truth, or purpose

nihilism

4

Nietzsche's ideas were fundamental to the rise of the philosophy of _____________

existentialism

5

idea that what we know myst be base on empirically proven facts, concluded that theology was meaningless because it could not be proven

logical positivism

6

What Austrian philosopher became associated with Logical positivism

Ludwig Wittgenstein

7

Wittgenstein believed that philosophy should focus on the study of _________

language

8

Where was logical positivism most popular as World War I progressed?

english speaking countries

9

a philosophy that stresses the meaningless of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world

existentialism

10

As World War I progressed, where was existentialism most popular?

continental Europe

11

What were most existentialists beliefs in god and religion ?

most were atheists

12

How did existentialism gain popularity in Germany in the 1920's?

Philosophers Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers found an audience in post war university students

13

When and where did existentialism become the most popular?

France during and immediately after World War II

14

The decades after World War I witnessed a ________ revival

religious

15

people who stressed human's sinful nature, their need for faith, and the mystery of god's forgiveness

Christian Existentialists

16

Christian revival was spread by the work of _____________

Kierkegaard

17

What was Kierkegaard's main belief on religion?

It was impossible to prove hesitance of god, but rejected the notion that christianity was an empty practice

18

Kierkegaard's essay that said that people must take a leap of faith and accept an unknowable but awesome god

Sickness Unto Death

19

Protestant theologian who said that religion shouldn't be approached with reason, but with trust and obedience

Karl Barth

20

This new wave of science challenged the comfort that came with the rational viewpoint that all science could be empirically proven

The New Physics

21

What was the first step to New Physics?

The discovery that atoms were made of smaller particles

22

What was the implication of Planck's quantum theory?

People began to question whether matter and energy were the same thing

23

Einstein's theory that time and space are relative to the observer and only the speed of light remains constant

Theory of Special Relativity

24

What was this age in physics called?

the heroic age in physics

25

Scientist who showed that the atom could be split

Ernest Rutherford

26

principle that nature itself is unknowable and unpredictable, theorized by Werner Heisenberg

Uncertainty Principle

27

Psychologist who theorized that human behavior was driven by the unconscious and was irrational

Sigmund Freud

28

What were the three structures of the self described by Freud?

id, ego, superego

29

Freud's book that said that civilization was possible only when people renounce their irrational instincts to live peacefully in groups

"Civilization and it's Discontents"

30

Label givent to the artistic and cultural movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression

Modernism

31

What country pioneered the new architecture?

The United States

32

Who led the Chicago School of Architects?

Louis Sullivan

33

belief that buildings should serve the purpose they were made for with little extra ornamentation

functionalism

34

Who wrote "Towards a New Architecture" that laid the out the guidelines to revolutionize building design

Le Corbusier

35

Where was european architecture centered before the rise of Hitler?

German speaking countries

36

Interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts in Weimar that brought together leading architects, designers, and theatrical innovators

Bauhaus

37

Who founded the Bauhaus school?

Walter Gropius `

38

Artists in this movement tried to portray their sensory impressions and looked to the world around them for subject matter. Not precise.

Impressionism

39

Built on impressionist color and light, but added a deep psychological meaning to their art

Expressionists

40

Who founded cubism?

Pablo Picasso

41

Art movement founded in Zurich that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct, believed that the war had shown that life was meaningless so art should be too

Dadaism

42

Art movement influenced by Freudian Psychology, portrayed imaged of the unconscious in their art

Surrealism

43

literary technique that used internal monologues to explore the human psyche

stream of consciousness technique

44

writers rejected the idea of ______

progress

45

Wrote dark novels about helps individuals like "The Metamorphoses"

Franz Kafka

46

Modern music flourished in ______ and _______

opera, ballet

47

How did transportation contribute to a consumer culture?

It allowed for the expansion of national markets

48

The marketing of fashion, personal care products, and makeup encouraged a cult of youthful _________

sex appeal

49

travel ________ with the rise of consumer society

increased

50

_____________ epitomized the new consumer society

Department stores

51

How did consumer society undermine social differences?

-It democratized society- everyone with means could purchase goods

52

How did consumer society reinforce social differences?

-Companies marketed goods to specific groups
-The cost of some things meant that only the wealthy could purchase them

53

how did consumer society transform women's lives?

-alliances and technology changed housework
-public visibly for girls and women

54

Image of the modern and industrial working women in the 1920's

Modern Girl

55

How was the "modern girl" a stereotype in some ways?

-product of marketing campaigns dedicated to selling goods
-few young women could afford to live up the image, even with jobs

56

How did consumerism and World War I effect women's overall behavior

loosened morals

57

Where was the influence of mass culture most evident?

Commercial entertainment

58

Why did World War I quicken the pace of entertainment media?

National leaders realized that movies and radios where quick ways to spread propaganda

59

What country dominated the competitive film business?

The United States

60

Who directed the series of epic films in Russia that dramatized the communist view of Russian History?

Sergei Eisentein

61

________ encouraged cinema in russia

Lenin

62

Documentary propaganda directed by Leni Riefenstahl based not the 1934 Nazi Party Rally at Nuremberg

Triumph of The Will

63

Who controlled european radio broadcasting?

government

64

How did France view the Treaty of Versailles?

France wanted the reparations that Germany owed them and saw them necessary to their growth and reconstruction after the war

65

How did Britain view the Treaty of Versailles?

They saw a healthy Germany as vital to the British economy because Germany had been Britain's second largest market before WWI

66

Book written by British Economist John Keynes, said that harsh reparations on Germany would hurt all countries and encourage Bolshevism, renounced the Treaty of Versailles

The Economic Consequence of Peace

67

Britain was suspicious of the large french ________

Army

68

Why was Britain suspicious of French Foreign Policy?

france had turned to the newly formed Central european nations as ally's

69

What happened when Germany was due to make their second payment?

They said that they were unable to pay any more, and proposed a moratorium on reparations for three years

70

How did the English feel about the proposal of a moratorium?

They were willing to accept it

71

How did the French respond to Germany's proposal?

They invaded the Ruhr district, the heart of German industry

72

How did the German government respond to the french occupation of Ruhr valley?

they ordered the ruhr valley workers to stop working and offer passive resistance to the french

73

How did the French respond to the passive resistance?

They sealed of Rhineland and the Ruhr form Germany, letting in only food to prevent starvation

74

How did the German government try to fix their financial problems?

Printing more money

75

What moderate leader came to power in Germany in 1923?

Gustav Stressmann

76

How did Gustav Stressmann attempt to fix the situation in the Ruhr Valley?

-Called of the passive resistance in the Ruhr
-Agreed in principle to pay for the reparations
-asked for the reexamination go Germany's ability to pay

77

Who led the international committee of financial experts who met to reexamine the German reparations in 1924?

Charles Dawes

78

What did the Dawes Plan entail?

-Germany's yearly reparations would be reduced and linked to the amount of economic output
-Would receive large loans from the unites states

79

Where did European leaders sign a series of agreements in 1925?

Locarno, Switzerland

80

Germany and France accepted their common ________

border

81

Germany didn't settle permanent borders on the ________

east

82

Pact that renounced war as an instrument of international policy

Kellogg-Briand Pact

83

Most of the working class in Germany supported what party?

Social Democrats

84

In France, what two parties were fighting for support of the working class?

Socialist and Communists

85

What was the biggest problem in the United Kingdom?

unemployment

86

This party took the place of the Liberal Party in Great Britain, they championed the working class and promoted greater social equality

The Labour Party

87

Worldwide economic depression from 1929-1939, unique in its severity and duration; slow and uneven recovery

Great Depression

88

What sparked the worldwide depression?

The US stock market crash in October of 1929

89

it became hard for european businesses to ______________

borrow money

90

How did frantic europeans react to the bank situation?

They frantically withdrew their money from banks

91

Countries began to go off of the _______ standard of currency to prevent from lowering the value of their currency?

gold

92

Countries began to follow the US example of raising _____________

protective tariffs

93

What 2 factors led to the worldwide depression?

-The international economy lacked leadership able to maintain stable
-Instead of raising spending to stimulate economy, countries cut spending

94

How did most countries deal with the poverty that came with the mass unemployment?

They offered aid or benefits

95

What democratic nation responded the most successfully to the Great Depression?

Scandinavian countries

96

What factors helped Britain come back from the depression?

-Increase in the new technology and automobile industries
-focus on national not international markets

97

Why did the Great Depression hit France later than other countries?

France was less industrialized and had a more isolated economy

98

Short lived New Deal inspired alliance in France led by Leon Blum that encouraged union movement and launched social reform

Popular Front

99

What became the strongest party in France?

The Socialist Party, led by Blum

100

Who was the Popular Front an alliance between?

Radicals, Communists, Socialists