Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe Deck (81)
1

By the end of the 17th century, most of Europe was agrarian except for what two countries?

England and Dutch Republic

2

What was the system most of Europe used for farming up to the seventeenth century?

Open field system

3

What was a big problem with the agriculture prior to the expansion of Europe?

Soil exhaustion

4

What was the only way to let soil recover?

Having a fallow period

5

Who led the agricultural revolution?

The Dutch

6

What technique allowed farmers to forgo a fallow period?

Crop rotation

7

Crop that came to Europe through the Colombian exchange, it was nutritious and supplemented Europeans diets

Potato

8

What fueled experimentation on farming techniques?

The scientific revolution

9

A movement to fence in fields to farm more efficiently, was done at the expense of the poor

Enclosure

10

Where was the enclosure system most extensive?

England and the Low Countries

11

Person who made vast advancements in drainage which allowed the farming of previously marshy areas

Cornelius Vermuyden

12

Englishman who tried to develop new farming methods through empiricism

Tethro Tull

13

Why was the enclosure movement controversial?

Closing open fields would hurt the village peasantry and force them to move to urban centers to find jobs

14

Why did improvements in technology increase unemployment?

New inventions increased productivity which meant less people were needed to farm and there were less jobs

15

The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners

Proletarianization

16

What was the major cause for the European population growth of the 18th century?

Decline in mortality

17

What were the causes for Europe's decrease in mortality?

-disappearance of bubonic plague
-improvements in water and sewage
-canal and road building
-less destructive wars
-agricultural advancement

18

What was the most negative side effect to the increased population?

Increase in the number of workers with no land

19

In which rural workers used fools in their homes to manufacture goods for sale in the market

Cottage industry

20

System where merchants loaned materials to cottage workers to be processed and returned to the merchant as a finished product

Putting out system

21

Why did the putting out system grow?

-abundant laborers willing to work for small wages
-unregulated production in the countryside

22

Where did the putting out system have the most success?

England

23

What was the most common industry for the putting out system?

Textiles

24

Whose job was it to operate the loom?

The husband

25

Wives and daughters of agricultural workers who prepared the thread, often widows

Spinners

26

What was the merchant's main problem with the putting out system?

Maintaining control over their work force

27

Why did merchants have trouble maintaining order over their employees?

They were scattered and had to work less during harvest

28

How did merchants motivate workers?

Giving them the lowest possible wages

29

In which families began focusing on earning wages instead of producing goods for the home; reduced leisure time, worked faster, and used women and children to earn money

The industrious revolution

30

The organization of artisanal production into trade based associations

The guild system

31

How did rural industry undermine the guild system?

Competition from rural workers who would work for less

32

What privileges did guilds have?

-monopoly over its trade
-right to train apprentices and hire workers
-exclusive right to produce and sell certain goods
-access to materials in restricted markets

33

Who did guilds restrict membership to?

Local Christian men

34

Why did guilds become unimportant in England?

National regulations were instilled that lowered the need for guilds

35

What country had the most powerful guilds?

Germany

36

What did enlightened thinkers normally think of guilds?

They were outdated and obstructed progress

37

Figure of the Scottish enlightenment, one of the leading critics of government regulation; the father of capitalism

Adam smith

38

What was the title of Adam Smith's book?

Wealth of Nations

39

What idea did Adam Smith develop that established the basis for modern economics?

Freedom of Enterprise

40

Separating production into small tasks to increase productivity, advocated by Adam Smith

Division of labor

41

What were the three sole duties did Adam Smith believed government should be responsible for?

-defense against foreign invasion
-maintenance of civil order
-sponsorship of certain indispensable public works

42

Belief in free trade and competition based on the invisible hand of free competition

Economic liberalism

43

Theory that the pursuit of self interest would be sufficient to improve living conditions of citizens

Invisible hand

44

Issued law abolishing all French guilds in 1776

Anne Robert Jaques Turgot

45

In 1707, Great Britain was formed by the unification of what two countries into a single kingdom?

England and Scotland

46

What allowed England to have so much commercial success in the eighteenth century?

The mercantilistic policies of the seventeenth century

47

English laws created to control the import of goods to Britain and its colonies

Navigation acts

48

What were the intentions of the Navigation Act?

Increase wealth and military power

49

Who passed the first navigation act in 1651, requiring all goods shipped to England and Scotland to be by British ships or built by the country of the goods origin

Oliver Cromwell

50

Who extended the navigation acts in 1660 and 1663?

Charles II

51

The navigation acts were a form of economic warfare aimed at what country?

Dutch Republic

52

What Dutch colony did the British take and rename New York?

New Amsterdam

53

After the Dutch began to fall behind, who became England's most serious rival?

France

54

Why was France a rival for England?

Lots of natural resources, large population, alliance with Spain

55

What sparked the war of the Spanish succession?

Louis XIV accepted the Spanish crown willed to his grandson

56

What did the Peace of Utrecht entail?

Louis had to cede his North American holdings to Britain

57

Part of the peace of Utrecht in which Spain gives Britain control over the west African slave trade

Asiento

58

What sparked the war of the Austrian succession?

Frederick The Great of Prussia seized Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria

59

Who did France support in the War of Austrian Succession?

Austria

60

Who did England support in the War of Austrian Succession?

Prussia

61

Who triumphed in the Seven Years War?

England

62

What treaty ended the seven years war?

The Treaty of Paris

63

Who was involved in triangle trade?

Europe, Africa, Colonies

64

The English economy was reliant on export to ____________

The Americas

65

Who did England benefit from colonial imports?

They bought colonial goods for cheap and sold them to European nations for profit

66

What goods were most important in the Atlantic trade?

Tobacco and sugar

67

City that grew to be the worlds largest/richest city

London

68

What colonial industries did France profit from the most?

Agriculture and the slave trade

69

What North American territory did Spain gain from France?

Louisiana

70

What allowed Spain to flourish again?

Recovery in silver production

71

Spanish system similar to serfdom in which masters kept indigenous implodes in perpetual debt

Debt peonage

72

Why did the Atlantic slave trade intensify in the eighteenth century?

Demand for agricultural goods

73

Who lead the abolition movement in England?

Women

74

People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas

Creoles

75

America was influenced the most by the _________ enlightenment

Scottish

76

Who led the enlightenment in the colonies?

Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson

77

What was the largest effect of the American enlightenment?

It encouraged colonists to criticize the mother country

78

Who dominated Indian Ocean trade before the Dutch?

Portugal

79

How did the Treaty of Paris affect Indian Ocean trade?

All of France's possessions in India were given to England except for Pondicherry

80

Who claimed Australia for England?

James Cook

81

Who were the Atlantic powers that lead the way in the expansion of Europe?

Dutch Republic, France, England