Flashcards in Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe Deck (81)
By the end of the 17th century, most of Europe was agrarian except for what two countries?
England and Dutch Republic
What was the system most of Europe used for farming up to the seventeenth century?
Open field system
What was a big problem with the agriculture prior to the expansion of Europe?
What was the only way to let soil recover?
Having a fallow period
Who led the agricultural revolution?
What technique allowed farmers to forgo a fallow period?
Crop that came to Europe through the Colombian exchange, it was nutritious and supplemented Europeans diets
What fueled experimentation on farming techniques?
The scientific revolution
A movement to fence in fields to farm more efficiently, was done at the expense of the poor
Where was the enclosure system most extensive?
England and the Low Countries
Person who made vast advancements in drainage which allowed the farming of previously marshy areas
Englishman who tried to develop new farming methods through empiricism
Why was the enclosure movement controversial?
Closing open fields would hurt the village peasantry and force them to move to urban centers to find jobs
Why did improvements in technology increase unemployment?
New inventions increased productivity which meant less people were needed to farm and there were less jobs
The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
What was the major cause for the European population growth of the 18th century?
Decline in mortality
What were the causes for Europe's decrease in mortality?
-disappearance of bubonic plague
-improvements in water and sewage
-canal and road building
-less destructive wars
What was the most negative side effect to the increased population?
Increase in the number of workers with no land
In which rural workers used fools in their homes to manufacture goods for sale in the market
System where merchants loaned materials to cottage workers to be processed and returned to the merchant as a finished product
Putting out system
Why did the putting out system grow?
-abundant laborers willing to work for small wages
-unregulated production in the countryside
Where did the putting out system have the most success?
What was the most common industry for the putting out system?
Whose job was it to operate the loom?
Wives and daughters of agricultural workers who prepared the thread, often widows
What was the merchant's main problem with the putting out system?
Maintaining control over their work force
Why did merchants have trouble maintaining order over their employees?
They were scattered and had to work less during harvest
How did merchants motivate workers?
Giving them the lowest possible wages
In which families began focusing on earning wages instead of producing goods for the home; reduced leisure time, worked faster, and used women and children to earn money
The industrious revolution
The organization of artisanal production into trade based associations
The guild system
How did rural industry undermine the guild system?
Competition from rural workers who would work for less
What privileges did guilds have?
-monopoly over its trade
-right to train apprentices and hire workers
-exclusive right to produce and sell certain goods
-access to materials in restricted markets
Who did guilds restrict membership to?
Local Christian men
Why did guilds become unimportant in England?
National regulations were instilled that lowered the need for guilds
What country had the most powerful guilds?
What did enlightened thinkers normally think of guilds?
They were outdated and obstructed progress
Figure of the Scottish enlightenment, one of the leading critics of government regulation; the father of capitalism
What was the title of Adam Smith's book?
Wealth of Nations
What idea did Adam Smith develop that established the basis for modern economics?
Freedom of Enterprise
Separating production into small tasks to increase productivity, advocated by Adam Smith
Division of labor
What were the three sole duties did Adam Smith believed government should be responsible for?
-defense against foreign invasion
-maintenance of civil order
-sponsorship of certain indispensable public works
Belief in free trade and competition based on the invisible hand of free competition
Theory that the pursuit of self interest would be sufficient to improve living conditions of citizens
Issued law abolishing all French guilds in 1776
Anne Robert Jaques Turgot
In 1707, Great Britain was formed by the unification of what two countries into a single kingdom?
England and Scotland
What allowed England to have so much commercial success in the eighteenth century?
The mercantilistic policies of the seventeenth century
English laws created to control the import of goods to Britain and its colonies
What were the intentions of the Navigation Act?
Increase wealth and military power
Who passed the first navigation act in 1651, requiring all goods shipped to England and Scotland to be by British ships or built by the country of the goods origin
Who extended the navigation acts in 1660 and 1663?
The navigation acts were a form of economic warfare aimed at what country?
What Dutch colony did the British take and rename New York?
After the Dutch began to fall behind, who became England's most serious rival?
Why was France a rival for England?
Lots of natural resources, large population, alliance with Spain
What sparked the war of the Spanish succession?
Louis XIV accepted the Spanish crown willed to his grandson
What did the Peace of Utrecht entail?
Louis had to cede his North American holdings to Britain
Part of the peace of Utrecht in which Spain gives Britain control over the west African slave trade
What sparked the war of the Austrian succession?
Frederick The Great of Prussia seized Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria
Who did France support in the War of Austrian Succession?
Who did England support in the War of Austrian Succession?
Who triumphed in the Seven Years War?
What treaty ended the seven years war?
The Treaty of Paris
Who was involved in triangle trade?
Europe, Africa, Colonies
The English economy was reliant on export to ____________
Who did England benefit from colonial imports?
They bought colonial goods for cheap and sold them to European nations for profit
What goods were most important in the Atlantic trade?
Tobacco and sugar
City that grew to be the worlds largest/richest city
What colonial industries did France profit from the most?
Agriculture and the slave trade
What North American territory did Spain gain from France?
What allowed Spain to flourish again?
Recovery in silver production
Spanish system similar to serfdom in which masters kept indigenous implodes in perpetual debt
Why did the Atlantic slave trade intensify in the eighteenth century?
Demand for agricultural goods
Who lead the abolition movement in England?
People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas
America was influenced the most by the _________ enlightenment
Who led the enlightenment in the colonies?
Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
What was the largest effect of the American enlightenment?
It encouraged colonists to criticize the mother country
Who dominated Indian Ocean trade before the Dutch?
How did the Treaty of Paris affect Indian Ocean trade?
All of France's possessions in India were given to England except for Pondicherry
Who claimed Australia for England?