Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 17: The Expansion of Europe Deck (81)
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1

By the end of the 17th century, most of Europe was agrarian except for what two countries?

England and Dutch Republic

2

What was the system most of Europe used for farming up to the seventeenth century?

Open field system

3

What was a big problem with the agriculture prior to the expansion of Europe?

Soil exhaustion

4

What was the only way to let soil recover?

Having a fallow period

5

Who led the agricultural revolution?

The Dutch

6

What technique allowed farmers to forgo a fallow period?

Crop rotation

7

Crop that came to Europe through the Colombian exchange, it was nutritious and supplemented Europeans diets

Potato

8

What fueled experimentation on farming techniques?

The scientific revolution

9

A movement to fence in fields to farm more efficiently, was done at the expense of the poor

Enclosure

10

Where was the enclosure system most extensive?

England and the Low Countries

11

Person who made vast advancements in drainage which allowed the farming of previously marshy areas

Cornelius Vermuyden

12

Englishman who tried to develop new farming methods through empiricism

Tethro Tull

13

Why was the enclosure movement controversial?

Closing open fields would hurt the village peasantry and force them to move to urban centers to find jobs

14

Why did improvements in technology increase unemployment?

New inventions increased productivity which meant less people were needed to farm and there were less jobs

15

The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners

Proletarianization

16

What was the major cause for the European population growth of the 18th century?

Decline in mortality

17

What were the causes for Europe's decrease in mortality?

-disappearance of bubonic plague
-improvements in water and sewage
-canal and road building
-less destructive wars
-agricultural advancement

18

What was the most negative side effect to the increased population?

Increase in the number of workers with no land

19

In which rural workers used fools in their homes to manufacture goods for sale in the market

Cottage industry

20

System where merchants loaned materials to cottage workers to be processed and returned to the merchant as a finished product

Putting out system

21

Why did the putting out system grow?

-abundant laborers willing to work for small wages
-unregulated production in the countryside

22

Where did the putting out system have the most success?

England

23

What was the most common industry for the putting out system?

Textiles

24

Whose job was it to operate the loom?

The husband

25

Wives and daughters of agricultural workers who prepared the thread, often widows

Spinners

26

What was the merchant's main problem with the putting out system?

Maintaining control over their work force

27

Why did merchants have trouble maintaining order over their employees?

They were scattered and had to work less during harvest

28

How did merchants motivate workers?

Giving them the lowest possible wages

29

In which families began focusing on earning wages instead of producing goods for the home; reduced leisure time, worked faster, and used women and children to earn money

The industrious revolution

30

The organization of artisanal production into trade based associations

The guild system