Flashcards in Ch 14: European Exploration and Conquest Deck (95)
Center of afroeurasion trade
Venetian trader and explorer whose stories fueled western fantasies, travelled to China
The Mongols fell to the ___________
Led treasure fleet" on multiple explorations, China turned away from external trade after his death
Was one of the most powerful African empires until their defeat by the ottomans in 1517
________ was practiced in Africa and everywhere else
Legends about Africa were ____________
What did people believe about Africa?
It was a Christian nation ruled by the descendent of one of the three kings; prestor John
The Middle East was an ___________ for the afroeurasion trade
There was a religious clash between the ____________ and ______________
Persians and Turks
What religion were Persians?
What religion did the ottoman Turks follow?
The Turks and Persians competed for ____________
Under Sultan Mohammed II the ottomans captured the largest European city _____________
What did the ottomans rename Constantinople?
The ottomans expanded ___________
In the late Middle Ages who controlled trade with east?
Venice and Genoa
Revival of the economy after the _____________ was a cause of expansion
Europeans wanted to spread ______________
Spanish soldier explorers who sought to conquer the new world for the Spanish
Fictitious travel book that convinced Europeans and romanticized exploration
The travels of John mandeville
Older ships propelled by slaves
New ships developed by Portuguese
Depicted the world as round and introduced concepts of latitude and longitude
Who reintroduced Europeans to Ptolemys geography?
Instruments invented by greeks, determine location by the elevation of the sun
Who perfected the astrolabe
Supported study of geography and navigation, dubbed the navigator, convinced the Portuguese monarch to open a school of navigation
The Portuguese conquest of Moroccan city ________ marked the beginning of European overseas expansion
Sailed to the end of the cape of good hope, storms forced him to turn back
Successfully rounded the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco de Gama
_________ became entrance port for trade goods in Europe
Where was Columbus from?
What did Columbus title his first expedition?
"The enterprise of the indies"
The ________ were the first to reject Columbus's proposition for his expedition
Who finally supported Columbus's expedition?
Ferdinand and Isabella
Where did Columbus land?
What did Columbus call the Bahamas?
What did Columbus do on his second voyage?
Enslave the people of Hispaniola
Who realized that the land Columbus found was new and unexplored?
What did the treaty of tordesillas do?
Gave Spain all land to west and Portugal all land to the east
Who worked out the treaty of tordesillas?
Pope Alexander VI
How did the Treaty of Tordesillas work in Portugals favor?
They colonized Brazil
Who claimed Brazil for the Portuguese?
What discovery did Ferdinand Magellan make while exploring near Brazil?
Strait of Magellan
What was magellans fate?
He died before returning home from his journey
What did Magellans expedition prove?
A west passage to the indies was much to dangerous
After the conclusion of Magellans expedition, Spain gave up on Asia and turned to the ________
Englishman who landed in newfound land on an attempted trip to Brazil
After his initial expedition, what did John Cabot do?
Return to survey New England
Made 3 voyages in and around the Canadian bay
Martin Fro Brisher
Explored Canada in search of path to Asia, ended up successfully trading with the natives for beaver pelts
Who conquered the Aztecs?
What was the other name for the Aztecs?
Who ruled the Aztecs?
What was the capital of the Aztec empire?
Who did Cortes form an alliance with to defeat the Aztecs?
Where was the inca empire?
What was the capital of the inca empire?
Who conquered the incas?
What was the first English colony?
What saved Jamestown?
____________ was founded by pilgrims
What colony was established by puritans?
Where did Catholics settle?
Where did Quakers settle?
Who founded the first permanent French settlement?
Samuel de Champlain
What did Samuel de Champlain settle?
The French forged relations with the ________ confederacy
French explorer who descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, opening up French occupation of Louisiana
Rene Robert Cavelier La Salle
What happened as conquests grew more successful?
The Spanish crown imposed authority over the conquested land
Controlled flow to goods and people to and from the colonies and Spain
House of trade
Highest court for colonial affairs
Council of the indies
Crown divided the new world possessions into _____________ ( administrative divisions)
What were the two Spanish viceroyalties?
Capitol of new Spain?
Capitol of Peru?
Imperial governor who excersized military and civil authority
Portuguese colonial administration = ____________ to Spanish
The ____________ functioned like Portugal house of trade
Royals officials with authority
Estates where conquistadors bred Spanish livestock
In which the crown granted conquerors the right to employ natives as slaves for labor
Most outspoken critic of brutality towards natives
Bartholome de la casas
What did the ottoman capture of Constantinople do to slavery?
Slowed down the flow of white slaves from Easter Europe
Transported slaves to Brazil and the Caribbean to work on sugar plantations
Dutch west India company
English company they held monopoly on slave trade
Royal African company
The Spanish silk trade had competition from the ________
The Dutch were at war from independence from _____________
What gave the Dutch incentive to attack the Portuguese?
The jointing of Portuguese to the Spanish crown
Idea that it is doubtful that total certainty is every attainable
Belief that no culture is better than another, just different
Skepticism and cultural relativism was expressed in work of frenchy ______________
Michael de Montaigne
What new literary genre did Montaigne develop?