Ch 14: European Exploration and Conquest Flashcards Preview

AP European History > Ch 14: European Exploration and Conquest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 14: European Exploration and Conquest Deck (95)
1

Center of afroeurasion trade

Indian Ocean

2

Venetian trader and explorer whose stories fueled western fantasies, travelled to China

Marco Polo

3

The Mongols fell to the ___________

Ming dynasty

4

Led treasure fleet" on multiple explorations, China turned away from external trade after his death

Zheng He

5

Was one of the most powerful African empires until their defeat by the ottomans in 1517

Egypt

6

________ was practiced in Africa and everywhere else

Slavery

7

Legends about Africa were ____________

Romanticized

8

What did people believe about Africa?

It was a Christian nation ruled by the descendent of one of the three kings; prestor John

9

The Middle East was an ___________ for the afroeurasion trade

Intermediary

10

There was a religious clash between the ____________ and ______________

Persians and Turks

11

What religion were Persians?

Shi'ite Muslim

12

What religion did the ottoman Turks follow?

Sunnism

13

The Turks and Persians competed for ____________

Trade routes

14

Under Sultan Mohammed II the ottomans captured the largest European city _____________

Constantinople

15

What did the ottomans rename Constantinople?

Istanbul

16

The ottomans expanded ___________

Rapidly

17

In the late Middle Ages who controlled trade with east?

Venice and Genoa

18

Revival of the economy after the _____________ was a cause of expansion

Black Plague

19

Europeans wanted to spread ______________

Christianity

20

Spanish soldier explorers who sought to conquer the new world for the Spanish

Conquistadors

21

Fictitious travel book that convinced Europeans and romanticized exploration

The travels of John mandeville

22

Older ships propelled by slaves

Galleys

23

New ships developed by Portuguese

Caravel

24

Depicted the world as round and introduced concepts of latitude and longitude

Ptolemys geography

25

Who reintroduced Europeans to Ptolemys geography?

Arabs

26

Instruments invented by greeks, determine location by the elevation of the sun

Astrolabe

27

Who perfected the astrolabe

Muslim navigators

28

Supported study of geography and navigation, dubbed the navigator, convinced the Portuguese monarch to open a school of navigation

Prince Henry

29

The Portuguese conquest of Moroccan city ________ marked the beginning of European overseas expansion

Cuera

30

Sailed to the end of the cape of good hope, storms forced him to turn back

Bartholemew Diaz

31

Successfully rounded the Cape of Good Hope

Vasco de Gama

32

_________ became entrance port for trade goods in Europe

Lisbon

33

Where was Columbus from?

Genoa

34

What did Columbus title his first expedition?

"The enterprise of the indies"

35

The ________ were the first to reject Columbus's proposition for his expedition

Portuguese

36

Who finally supported Columbus's expedition?

Ferdinand and Isabella

37

Where did Columbus land?

Bahamas

38

What did Columbus call the Bahamas?

San Salvador

39

What did Columbus do on his second voyage?

Enslave the people of Hispaniola

40

Who realized that the land Columbus found was new and unexplored?

Amerigo Vespucci

41

What did the treaty of tordesillas do?

Gave Spain all land to west and Portugal all land to the east

42

Who worked out the treaty of tordesillas?

Pope Alexander VI

43

How did the Treaty of Tordesillas work in Portugals favor?

They colonized Brazil

44

Who claimed Brazil for the Portuguese?

Alvarez Cabral

45

What discovery did Ferdinand Magellan make while exploring near Brazil?

Strait of Magellan

46

What was magellans fate?

He died before returning home from his journey

47

What did Magellans expedition prove?

A west passage to the indies was much to dangerous

48

After the conclusion of Magellans expedition, Spain gave up on Asia and turned to the ________

New world

49

Englishman who landed in newfound land on an attempted trip to Brazil

John Cabot

50

After his initial expedition, what did John Cabot do?

Return to survey New England

51

Made 3 voyages in and around the Canadian bay

Martin Fro Brisher

52

Explored Canada in search of path to Asia, ended up successfully trading with the natives for beaver pelts

Jacques Cartier

53

Who conquered the Aztecs?

Hernan Cortes

54

What was the other name for the Aztecs?

Mexica's

55

Who ruled the Aztecs?

Montezuma II

56

What was the capital of the Aztec empire?

Tenochitlan

57

Who did Cortes form an alliance with to defeat the Aztecs?

Tlaxcalas

58

Where was the inca empire?

Peru

59

What was the capital of the inca empire?

Cuzco

60

Who conquered the incas?

Francisco Pizzaro

61

What was the first English colony?

Roanoke

62

What saved Jamestown?

Tobacco sales

63

____________ was founded by pilgrims

Plymouth

64

What colony was established by puritans?

Massachusetts

65

Where did Catholics settle?

Maryland

66

Where did Quakers settle?

Pennsylvania

67

Who founded the first permanent French settlement?

Samuel de Champlain

68

What did Samuel de Champlain settle?

Quebec

69

The French forged relations with the ________ confederacy

Huron

70

French explorer who descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, opening up French occupation of Louisiana

Rene Robert Cavelier La Salle

71

What happened as conquests grew more successful?

The Spanish crown imposed authority over the conquested land

72

Controlled flow to goods and people to and from the colonies and Spain

House of trade

73

Highest court for colonial affairs

Council of the indies

74

Crown divided the new world possessions into _____________ ( administrative divisions)

Viceroyalties

75

What were the two Spanish viceroyalties?

New Spain
Peru

76

Capitol of new Spain?

Mexico City

77

Capitol of Peru?

Lima

78

Imperial governor who excersized military and civil authority

Viceroy

79

Portuguese colonial administration = ____________ to Spanish

Similar

80

The ____________ functioned like Portugal house of trade

India house

81

Royals officials with authority

Intendents

82

Estates where conquistadors bred Spanish livestock

Haciendas

83

In which the crown granted conquerors the right to employ natives as slaves for labor

Encomienda system

84

Most outspoken critic of brutality towards natives

Bartholome de la casas

85

What did the ottoman capture of Constantinople do to slavery?

Slowed down the flow of white slaves from Easter Europe

86

Transported slaves to Brazil and the Caribbean to work on sugar plantations

Dutch west India company

87

English company they held monopoly on slave trade

Royal African company

88

The Spanish silk trade had competition from the ________

Dutch

89

The Dutch were at war from independence from _____________

Spanish overlords

90

What gave the Dutch incentive to attack the Portuguese?

The jointing of Portuguese to the Spanish crown

91

Idea that it is doubtful that total certainty is every attainable

Skepticism

92

Belief that no culture is better than another, just different

Cultural relativism

93

Skepticism and cultural relativism was expressed in work of frenchy ______________

Michael de Montaigne

94

What new literary genre did Montaigne develop?

The essay

95

_____________ trading world linked products and people of Asia, Africa, and Europe

Afroeurasion