Ch 2 - Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 - Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole Deck (82)
1

anabolism

Process of building up large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids.

Ana- means up, bol means to cast, -ism is a processs.

2

catabolism

Process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy is released.

Cata- means down, bol means to cast, -ism is a process.

3

cell

The fundamental unit of all living things (animal or plant). Cells are everywhere in the human body-every tissue, every organ is made up of these individual units.

The smallest living unit.

4

cell membrane

Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.

5

chromosomes

Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.

6

cytoplasm

All of the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.

7

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.

8

endoplasmic reticulum

Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.

9

genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome.

10

karyotype

Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.

11

metabolism

Total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism.

Meta- means change, bol means to cast, -ism means a process.

12

mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature "power plants") for the cell. Catabolism is the process that occurs in mitochondria. (From the Greek mitos meaning thread and chrondion meaning a granule.)

13

nucleus

Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

14

ribosomes

Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum are ribosomes, which build long chains of proteins.

15

adipose tissue

Collection of fat cells.

16

cartilage

Flexible connective tissue often attached to bones at joints. Cartilage forms part of the external ear and the nose. Rings of cartilage surround the trachea.

17

epithelial cells

Skin cells that cover the outside of the body line the internal surfaces of organs.

18

histologist

Specialist in the study of tissues.

19

larynx

Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.

20

pharynx

Throat. The pharynx serves as the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).

21

pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.

22

thyroid gland

Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.

23

trachea

Windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).

24

ureter

One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.

25

urethra

Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

26

uterus

Womb; the organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops.

27

viscera

Internal organs.

28

abdominal cavity

Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen or peritoneal cavity.

29

cranial cavity

Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull.

30

diaphragm

Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. The diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing.

31

dorsal (posterior)

Pertaining to the back.

32

mediastinum

Centrally located space outside of and between the lungs.

33

pelvic cavity

Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis, composed of the hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity.

34

peritoneum

Double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum attaches abdominal viscera to muscles and functions as a protective membrane (containing blood vessels and nerves) around the organs.

35

pleura

Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung. Pleural means pertaining to the pleura.

36

pleural cavity

Space between the pleural layers

37

spinal cavity

Space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord. Also called the spinal canal.

38

thoracic cavity

Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.

39

ventral (anterior)

Pertaining to the front.

40

hypochondriac (abdominopelvic regions)

Right and left upper regions beneath the ribs.

41

epigastric (abdominopelvic regions)

Middle upper region above the stomach.

42

lumbar (abdominopelvic regions)

Right and left middle regions near the waist.

43

umbilical (abdominopelvic regions)

Central region near the navel.

44

inguinal (abdominopelvic regions)

Right and left lower regions near the groin. Also called iliac regions.

45

hypogastric (abdominopelvic regions)

Middle lower region below the umbilical region.

46

RUQ (abdominopelvic quadrants)

Right upper quadrant. Contains the liver (right lobes), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.

47

LUQ (abdominopelvic quadrants)

Left upper quadrant. Contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.

48

RLQ (abdominopelvic quadrants)

Right lower quadrant. Contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter.

49

LLQ (abdominopelvic quadrants)

Left lower quadrant. Contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter.

50

cervical (divisions of the back)

Neck region (C1 to C7).

51

thoracic (divisions of the back)

Chest region (T1 to T12).

52

lumbar (divisions of the back)

Loin (waist) region (L1 to L5).

53

sacral (divisions of the back)

Region of the sacrum (S1 to S5).

54

coccygeal (divisions of the back)

Region of the coccyx (tailbone).

55

vertebra

Single backbone.

56

vertebrae

Backbones.

57

spinal column

Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.

58

spinal cord

Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.

59

disk (disc)

Pad of cartilage between vertebrae.

60

anterior (ventral)

Front surface of the body.

61

deep

Away from the surface.

62

distal

Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.

63

frontal (coronal) plane

Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.

64

inferior (caudal)

Below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body.

65

lateral

Pertaining to the side.

66

medial

Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.

67

posterior (dorsal)

Back surface of the body.

68

prone

Lying on the belly (face down, palms down).

69

proximal

Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.

70

sagittal (lateral) plane

Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. From the Latin sagitta, meaning arrow. As an arrow is shot from a bow it enters the body in the sagittal plane, dividing right from left. The midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.

71

superficial (cephalic)

Above another structure; pertaining to the head.

72

supine

Lying on the back (face up, palms up).

73

transverse (axial) plane

Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions.

74

Digestive System

Mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas

75

Urinary or Excretory System

Kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body)

76

Respiratory System

Nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), broncial tubes, lungs (where the exchange of gases takes place)

77

Reproductive System

Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb), vagina, mammary glands

78

Endocrine System

Thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands

79

Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves

80

Circulatory System

Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland

81

Musculoskeletal System

Muscles, bones, and joints

82

Skin and Sense Organs System

Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands; eye, ear, nose, tongue