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Flashcards in Ch.13 Deck (40)
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Martin Luther

95 thesis


Johann john tetzel

Tetzel, whose German name is Johann, was given the task of raising money for the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. He was exceptionally good at it, and his claims for the effect of indulgences were exceptionally extreme and superstitious.

Sold indulgences


Ninety five thesis

The Ninety-Five Theses, composed originally in Latin, were posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517. The Castle


Diet of worms

A diet is a formal conference of princes. Newly elected German king and now emperor of all Europe, Charles V, convened a diet in the German town of Worms on January 28, 1521. It's primary concern was not Martin Luther, but the popular, rebellious monk—and prodigious author— would have to be addressed.


Peasant war 1534

Martin Luther, however, condemned the revolt, thus contributing to its eventual defeat. Lacking unity and firm leadership, the peasant forces were crushed (1525) largely by the army of the


Philip melanchthon

University professor at witenburg


Charles v

Holy roman emperor


Pease of augsburg

Peace of Augsburg, first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany, promulgated on September 25, 1555, by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire assembled earlier that year at Augsburg.


Ulrich zwingli

Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss Protestant leader in the Reformation. Ulrich Zwingli is not as famous as the likes as Martin Luther or John Calvin but he did play his part in the break with the Roman Catholic Church.

67 articles


John Calvin

IJohn Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530.


Marburg colloquy

The Marburg Colloquy is the name given to the meeting between Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Luther in 1529. The desired outcome for the meeting was unity within the Protestant world so that it presented a united front to the Catholic Church.



Bread turned into body: Transubstantiation is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. The Catechism of the Catholic Church defines this doctrine in section 1376:


Anabaptists (the Munster incident)

Because the adult baptism and separation of Church and State pushed by so many Anabaptist communities was so politically revolutionary, the Anabaptists were hunted by Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists and persecuted. In the first 10 years of the Anabaptist movement, more Anabaptists had been


Menno Simons

He was not the founder but is often called the regenerator of the Anabaptist movement. He certainly was its most important leader in the Netherlands during the sixteenth century. Menno assumed leadership during a crucial period in which the Anabaptist movement was in danger of losing its original identity. His prolific writings and moderate leadership were essential in unifying the nonviolent wing of the Dutch Anabaptists and maintaining their peaceful beliefs.Menno took his motto from I Corinthians 3:11 - For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ (New International Version). This motto, which he repeated in most of his works, points to the Christ-centeredness of his theology.


William tyndale

Tyndale had discovered this doctrine when he read Erasmus's Greek edition of the New Testament. What better way to share this message with his countrymen than to put an English version of the New Testament into their hands? This, in fact, became Tyndale's life passion, aptly summed up in the words of his mentor, Erasmus: "Christ desires his mysteries to be published abroad as widely as possible. I would that [the Gospels and the epistles of Paul] were translated into all languages, of all Christian people, and that they might be read and known."


Act of supremacy (Henry vii)

Act of Supremacy, (1534) English act of Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as the “Supreme Head of the Church of England.” The act also required an oath of loyalty from English subjects that recognized his marriage


Thomas Cranmer

In 1539, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, hired Myles Coverdale at the bequest of King Henry VIII to publish the "Great Bible". It became the first English Bible authorized for public use, as it was distributed to every church, chained to the pulpit, and a reader was even provided so that the illiterate could hear the Word of God in plain English. It would seem that William Tyndale's last wish had been granted...just three years after his martyrdom. Cranmer's Bible, published by Coverdale, was known as the Great Bible due to its great size: a large pulpit folio measuring over 14 inches tall. Seven editions of this version were printed between April of 1539 and December of 1541.


Book of common prayer

"It is a most invaluable part of that blessed ‘liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free,’ that in his worship different forms and usages may without offence be allowed, provided the substance of the Faith be kept entire" (Book of Common Prayer, p. 9).

The Book of Common Prayer is a treasure chest full of devotional and teaching resources for individuals and congregations, but it is also the primary symbol of our unity. We, who are many and diverse, come together in Christ through our worship, our common prayer.


Edward VI

In the summer of 1549, peasants in the West Country revolted in protest against the Prayer Book. Kett's Rebellion in Norfolk was focused on economic and social injustices. At the same time, the French declared war on England. The Norfolk rebellion was suppressed by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick. In the atmosphere of uncertainty, Dudley exploited his success by bringing about the downfall of Somerset, who was arrested and later executed. Although Dudley, later duke of Northumberland, never took the title of protector, this is the role he now assumed. Protestant reform was stepped up - the new Prayer Book of 1552 was avowedly Protestant. Altars were turned into tables, religious imagery destroyed and religious orthodoxy was enforced by a new and more stringent Act of Uniformity.


Mary Tudor Bloody Mary

Mary immediately began repealing many of Henry VIII's religious edicts and replacing them with her own, which included a strict heresy law. The enforcement of this law resulted in the burning of over 300 Protestants as heretics. Mary's religious persecutions made her extremely unpopular and earned her the nickname "Bloody Mary."



The Puritans were a group of people who grew discontent in the Church of England and worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms. The writings and ideas of John Calvin, a leader in the Reformation, gave rise to Protestantism and were pivotal to the Christian revolt. They contended that The Church of England had become a product of political struggles and man-made doctrines. The Puritans were one branch of dissenters who decided that the Church of England was beyond reform. Escaping persecution from church leadership and the King, they came to America.


Catholic reformation

The Catholic Reformation was the intellectual counter-force to Protestantism. The desire for reform within the Catholic Church had started before the spread of Luther. Many educated Catholics had wanted change - for example, Erasmus and Luther himself, and they were willing to recognise faults within the Papacy.


Ignatius Loyola

Over the years, Ignatius became expert in the art of spiritual direction. He collected his insights, prayers, and suggestions in his book the Spiritual Exercises, one of the most influential books on the spiritual life ever written. With a small group of friends, Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits. Ignatius conceived the Jesuits as “contemplatives in action.” This also describes the many Christians who have been touched by Ignatian spirituality.


Council of Trent

The Council of Trent condemned the errors of the Protestant Revolters, and shone as a beacon to all the world. Its clear ...


Catherine d'Medici

Catherine de Medici has been held partly responsible for starting the French Wars of Religion She married the future Henry II in 1533 and had ten children.


Huguenots and St. Bartholomew's Day

French Protestants
Huguenot through greatly favored by Francis


Henri IV and edict of non-tease

There is Henry King of France and king of England


Philip the second of Spain

During his reign the Spanish Empire a change its greatest power extent and influence
He failed to suppress the revolt of the Netherlands



Daughter of Henry tutor sister is Mary


Mary Stuart Queen of Scots

Married Darnley
She was accused He was accused of killing her husband and was sent to jail and then later was accused of killing her sister. She fled