Ch. 21 The Industrial Revolution Flashcards Preview

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The agricultural revolution

into an agricultural period characterized by a diet of cultivated foods; or a further transition from a living form of agriculture into a more advanced and more productive form of agriculture, resulting in further social changes, and some argue worse individual living conditions.[


Richard Arkwright water frame

was an inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution. Although the patents were eventually overturned, he is credited with inventing the spinning frame, which, following the transition to water power, was renamed the water frame. He also patented a rotary carding engine that transformed raw cotton into cotton lap.


James Hargreaves spinning Jenny

The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire in England. The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.[1]


Samuel crompton mule

, a machine which spun yarn suitable for use in the manufacture of muslin.[3] It was known as the muslin wheel or the Hall i' th' Woodwheel,[4] from the name of the house in which he and his family lived.[5] The mule-jenny later became known as the spinning mule. There was a strong demand for the yarn which Crompton was making at Hall i' th' Wood. He lacked the means to take out a patent.


James watt

James Watt, FRS, FRSE was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world. Wikis


Henry cort

During the Industrial Revolution in England, Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron (or bar iron) using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore.


Jethro tull

was an English agricultural pioneer from Berkshire who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution. He perfected a horse-drawn seed drill in 1701 that economically sowed the seeds in neat rows. He later developed a horse-drawn hoe. Tull's methods were adopted by many great land owners and helped to provide the basis for modern agriculture. This revolutionized the future of agricultural success.


Richard Trevithick

was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, UK.[1] Born in the mining heartland of Cornwall, Trevithick was immersed in mining and engineering from a young age. The son of a mining captain, he performed poorly in school, but went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was to the development of the first high-pressure steam engine.


George Stephenson

George Stephenson was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Wikipedia


Great exhibition

It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria. It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time,


Crystal palace

display examples of the latest technology developed in the Industrial Revolution. Designed by Sir Joseph Paxton, the Great Exhibition building was 1,851 feet (564 m) long, with an interior height of 128 feet (39 m).[1] Because of the recent invention of the cast plate glass method in 1848, which allowed for large sheets of cheap but strong glass, it was at the time the largest amount of glass ever seen in a building and astonished visitors with its clear walls and ceilings that did not require interior lights, thus a "Crystal Palace".

Glass and iron


Credit mobilier



The Irish potato famine

period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.[1] It is sometimes referred to, mostly outside Ireland, as the Irish Potato Famine because about two-fifths of the population was solely reliant on this cheap crop for a number of historical reasons.[2][3] During the famine approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland,[4] causing the island's popula


Britain's poor law commission



Edwin Chadwick

Urban reformer
Wanted to eliminate metropolitan powers
Became a civil servant
Secretary of Poor Law Commision
Investigated living conditions for working classes
Wrote condition of the laboring population of Great Britain

Believed drainage in cities were the most important



Deadly disease frequent in overcrowded cities

Call for new public health issues


bourgeoisie vs proletariat

bourgeoisie: middle class merchant artisan lawyer or scholar but later became people who were involved in commerce banking and industry lawyers teachers and government officials


Trade unions

Preserve own workers position by limiting entry into trade and gain benefits from their employers


The factory working class



Robert Owen

Robert Marcus Owen was a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Wikipedia


The luddites

The Luddites were 19th-century English textile artisans who protested against newly developed labour-replacing machinery from 1811 to 1817. The stocking frames, spinning frames and power looms introduced during the Industrial Revolution threatened to replace the artisans with less-skilled, low-wage labourers, leaving them without work.


Chartism the people's charter

Six key points
Right to vote no property qualification annual Parliament equal representation payment of members and vote by secret ballot


The factory acts

Regulated the conditions of industrial employment regulated hours of work in moral welfare of young children


Ten hours act of 1847
Make sure women and children only worked 10 hours a daycaused a lot of controversy

Make sure women and children only worked 10 hours a daycaused a lot of controversy


Coal mines act of 1842

Mines and Collieries Act 1842 (c. 99), commonly known as the Mines Act of 1842, was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It prohibited all females and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines.