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Flashcards in Ch.16 Scientific Revolution Deck (28)
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In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a description of the cosmos where Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies. This model served as the predominant cosmological system in many ancient civilizations such as ancient Greece



Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism,[1] is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a relatively stationary Sun at the center of the Solar System. The word comes from the Greek (ἥλιος helios "sun" and κέντρον kentron "center"). Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos,


Nicholas Copernicus

a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center.


Wrote on the revolutions of the heavenly spheres


Tycho Brahe

Proved that the universe does change mathematicians


Johannes Kepler

German, almost became a Lutheran
pastor. Became an assistant of Brahe’s in Prague. Kepler believed that there was a divine order to the Universe—believed that the planetary


Galileo Galilei

Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5][6] the "father of science",[6][7] and "the father of modern science".[8]


Isaac Newton

development of calculus.

Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetar



Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire. Wikipedia



was a Swiss German[3] Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist.[4] He founded the discipline of Toxicology.[5] He is also known as a revolutionary for insisting upon using observations of nature, rather than looking to ancient texts, in open and radical defiance of medical practice of his day.[5] He is also credited for giving zinc its name, calling it zincum.[6][7] Modern psychology often also credits him for being the first to note that some diseases are rooted in psychological illness.


Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius was a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.


William Harvey

British scientist, was able to prove how blood flowed in a person’s body (bear in mind that he published a lifetime after Vesalius).


Robert Boyle

was an Irish 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland, he was also noted for his writings in theology. Although his research clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law,[2] which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.[3][4] Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry.


Antoine Lavoisier

It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from the fact that he changed the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon (1787)[3] and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element (1777) rather than a compound.[4] He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.


Margaret cavendish

Cavendish was a poet, philosopher, writer of prose romances, essayist, and playwright who published under her own name at a time when most women writers published anonymously. Her writing addressed a number of topics, including gender, power, manners, scientific method, and philosophy. Her utopian romance, The Blazing World, is one of the earliest examples of science fiction.[1]


Maria sibylla merian

Important entomologist

Wrote "metamorphosis of the insects of Surinam"

60 illustrations to show the reproductive and developmental cycles of Suriname insect life


Maria winkelman


Viewed comet

Difficulty with the Berlin academy


Rene Descartes

Studied law

Found out new rational mathematical system

Mind and matter

Made Cartesian dualism

"Father of modern rationalism"


Francis bacon and scientific method

He didn't doubt people's thought about humans ability to know the natural world but he thought they viewed it wrong.

He wanted science to contribute to the mechanical art by creating devices


Benedict de Spinoza

Philosopher in Amsterdam

Rejected tenets of Judaism and was excommunicated at 24

Went to university of heidlenburg

Did not believe Descartes ideas especially mind over matter


Blaise pascal

French scientist who wanted to keek science and religion United

Invented calculation machine

Saw vision and said he will live his life for religion matters

Didn't want to rely on scientists world of order and rationality to attract people to God


English royal society



French royal Academy of Sciences

Was under government control

Receiver little government encouragement

Committee to investigate technological improvements for industry


The Starry Messenger by Galilieo

Short astronomical treatise. First published scientific work based on observations made through a telescope.


Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican by Galilieo

Compared Copernican system with traditional Ptolemaic system. By him publishing it he was convicted of heresy


Newtons concept of World Machine

The clockwork universe theory is what he thought was ran by God.


Vesalius book

The Fabric Of the Human Body


Querelles de femmes

It is a debate about the social role of woman in modern western society



Cartesian coordinate