Unit 2. Essay Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2. Essay Questions Deck (21):
0

Describe the new astronomy of the 16th and 17th centuries and analyze the ways in which it changed scientific thought and methods

New theories and discoveries in astronomy such as Copernicus heliocentric theory or newtons law of gravity drastically change the world's concept of science and methods as well as religion

Copernicus
•on the revolutions of heavenly spears
•Contradicted Ptolemaic theory
•Heliocentric theory
•kept Aristotle circular orbits

Brahe
•20 years exact observations of planets
•student of Kepler
•combination of heliocentric geocentric

Galileo
•Dialogue
-defended heliocentric theory
-written in Italian rather than that in equals more widely available to the public
•starry messenger
-heliocentric
-Holy office of church said he could continue discussions as long it was a mathematical equation not a fact

Laws of the universe
•3 laws of planetary motion
-planets orbit the focus point son at an eclipse
-closer to the sun equals faster speed planets with smaller orbits have a faster velocity
-eliminated idea of uniform circular motion an idea of crystalline Spears and circular orbits
-Potomac system was disapproved

Newton
•Principia
-explain following bodies on earth motions of planets comments other celestial bodies
-laws of motion series of mechanics mathematical terms of gravity elliptical planetary orbits
•universal law of gravity
-mechanistic universe but God is still a part of Earth
-explained all motion in the universe

1

How did the development and scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the universe and of humanity's place with in it?

Copernicus
•on the revolutions of heavenly spears
•Contradicted Ptolemaic theory
•Heliocentric theory
•kept Aristotle circular orbits

Newton
•Principia
-explain following bodies on earth motions of planets comments other celestial bodies
-laws of motion series of mechanics mathematical terms of gravity elliptical planetary orbits
•universal law of gravity
-mechanistic universe but God is still a part of Earth
-explained all motion in the universe

2

Explain the development of the scientific method in the 17th century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority

The scientific method explores the way in which scientific theories are formulated and not the science itself

The enlightenment prompted philosophers to question tradition
Form logical thought and come to conclusions

Science and religion were against themselves

Sir Francis Bacon was known mostly for the scientific method

Form hypothesis making observations

Changed our understanding of the universe and where the truth comes from
The idea of relying on a authority declined

Bacon Road on questions of law state religion as well as contemporary politics

3

Analyze the ways in which specific intellectual and scientific developments of the 17th and 18th centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as Deism

Deism emerged during the enlightenment
Deism is religious philosophy

Belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a creator
Rose in Britain France Germany among intellectuals raised as Christians who believed in one God but found fault with organize religion and did not believe in supernatural events such as miracles

D is on hold that God does not intervene with the functioning of the natural in anyway allowing it to run according to the laws of nature

They thought God exists and created the universe and God gives humans the ability to reason

4

To what extent does that enlightenment express optimistic ideas in 18th-century Europe illustrate your answer for three references to specific individuals and their works

The peoples of my Inma believe the almightiness of human knowledge and defy the tradition and the preestablished thoughts of the past this is where the Caymans became overconfident in the human reason and rationality

Diderot
•Devoted himself to editing enCyclopedia for more than 20 years
•He possessed a wide range of knowledge but he never had a consistent floss fickle thoughts
•he attacked atheism
•he was influenced by Bayle and became skeptic
•He regarded the observation of nature and experiments is very important and objective the distinction like discard his between mind and matter

Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church
Voltaire concludes with Candide, if not rejecting optimism outright, advocating a deeply practical precept, "we must cultivate our garden"

John locke
John Locke FRS, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".
Absolute Christianity

5

In what ways did enlightenment thinkers build on and make use of the ideas of Newton and Lockes

Roxana Locke:
Beliefs:
Against absolutism
Believed humans lived in state of freedom
Believed humans had natural rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Tabula Rasa (blank mind)
People were molded by their environment
Wanted limited government power
Writings:
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Letters Concerning Toleration
The Second Treatise of Government
How they made use of the ideas of

Newton:
Life’s work:
Invented calculus
Law of universal gravitation
Composition of light
Principia
Three laws of motion
Beliefs:
God was everywhere, then later dropped spiritual assumptions
Matter was composed of atoms
The universe was a giant machine in which time, space, and matter were objective realities that existed independently of those observing them.
Thesis idea: The ideas of John Locke and Isaac Newton came into play during the Enlightenment by making use of works such as Locke’s Tabula Rasa and Newton’s Principia.

6

Analyze the ways in which the ideas of 17th-century fingers John Locke and Isaac Newton contributed to the ideas of 18th-century enlightenment thinkers

Roxana Locke:
Beliefs:
Against absolutism
Believed humans lived in state of freedom
Believed humans had natural rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Tabula Rasa (blank mind)
People were molded by their environment
Wanted limited government power
Writings:
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Letters Concerning Toleration
The Second Treatise of Government
How they made use of the ideas of

Newton:
Life’s work:
Invented calculus
Law of universal gravitation
Composition of light
Principia
Three laws of motion
Beliefs:
God was everywhere, then later dropped spiritual assumptions
Matter was composed of atoms
The universe was a giant machine in which time, space, and matter were objective realities that existed independently of those observing them.
Thesis idea: The ideas of John Locke and Isaac Newton came into play during the Enlightenment by making use of works such as Locke’s Tabula Rasa and Newton’s Principia.

7

"In the 18 century people turn to the new signs for better understanding of the social and economic problems of the day."

Assess the validity of the statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era

Newtons ideas John Locke people's ideas of why the universe the way it is

8

Describe and analyze the influence of the enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the 18th century

Salons
Reading became widespread

9

Analyze at least two factors that account for the rise into factors that explains the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580 to 1750

ThesisThere were many factors that led to the rise and decline of the witchcraft craze, but the main ones were fear and uncertainty.
The Rise
-wanted scapegoat
-times uncertain (war, plagues-Black Death, economic+social uncertainties)
-didn’t know why/how certain things happened (Black Death, animals dying suddenly, etc.)
-religious uncertainties: Protestants+Catholics accused each other of “being in league w/ the devil”
-property owners feared the poor=> transformed poor into devils’ agents
-Catholic acknowledged existence of witches
-2friars (Sprenger+Kramer) wrote book Malleus Maleficarum
-Malleus Maleficarum talked about how to identify+try witches
-most of lower class, unwanted people(old women, milkmaids,etc)
-witches mostly women. They were “inferior” to men mentally+morally => more susceptible to witchcraft
The Decline
-Religious passions+war subsided(caused too much damage)
-Govs. recovered
-Educated people realized old attitude contrary to reason

10

Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in 18th-century Europe

•Patroness reason
•kings payed thinkers to conduct research
•led to skeptism
•bible wasn't completely right
•led to toleration of many religions
•Voltaire publicly criticized religion

11

Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great to Catherine the greatZ

During the end of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Russia saw great political and social reform under the reign of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. Peter the Great tried to incorporate both the foreign and domestic policies of Western Europe and built, like Louis XIV, a great palace, which he called St. Petersburg. He also altered the physical appearance of himself and his nobility by making them embody those of the west. Catherine the Great stressed the idea of the Enlightenment when she succeeded Peter the Great after his death. She allowed a new "public opinion" to help her to appeal to a broader public, and often felt the need to justify her policies to the intellectuals of Western
Europe. With Peter the Great's stress on the adoption of Western European policies, and Catherine the Great's encompassing of the ideas of the Enlightenment, Russia experienced a complete transformation politically through some successful changes such as Peter’s Table of Ranks and socially through Catherine’s successful Charter of the Nobility.

Right when Catherine went to the throne she introduced reforms to increase Russia's wealth

She applied modern scientific methods to agriculture

Created the imperial art collection

Peter took out the medieval times in Russia built an army and centralized his government

12

Describe the challenges to royal authority in Eastern Europe and the 17th and 18th centuries and evaluate the effectiveness of those challenges

The growth of absolutism in Eastern Europe made rulers superior over the lower classesno way they believed keptArea and balance and growthsome believe they still need a challenge royal authority Austria Prussia and Russia

13

Analyze the military political and social factors that account for the rise of Prussia between 1640 in 1786


•The devastation of Brandenburg-Prussia after the Thirty Years War paved the way for the growth of Prussia. After the Thirty Years War, Brandenburg-Prussia was greatly weakened and little to no army existed. This gave way to four kings who each greatly enhanced the welfare of Prussia. Frederick William, Frederick III, Frederick William I, and Frederick II’s military, political and crucial factors accounted for the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia between 1640-1786. The building of the army, creation of an absolute monarchy, and encouragement of religious tolerance greatly reflected the rise of Prussia.


Introduction
•The devastation of Brandenburg-Prussia after the Thirty Years War paved the way for the growth of Prussia. After the Thirty Years War, Brandenburg-Prussia was greatly weakened and little to no army existed. This gave way to four kings who each greatly enhanced the welfare of Prussia. Frederick William, Frederick III, Frederick William I, and Frederick II’s military, political and crucial factors accounted for the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia between 1640-1786. The building of the army, creation of an absolute monarchy, and encouragement of religious tolerance greatly reflected the rise of Prussia.


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14

Britain and France were engaged in a geopolitical economic rivalry during the 18th-century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry and assess the results for both countries over the period 1689 to 1789

factors that contributed to their rivalry included power in foreign countries as well within their own government

Great Britain and France Before the 18th century
1. Britain
a. Parliamentary government and the Stuart Monarchy
b. In need of recovery
c. As an institution, the monarchy had not yet reached the degraded state of the
French monarchy
d. At the beginning af the 18th century, Britain emerged victorious over Louis XIV
i. (1713) Treaty of Utrecht- ended Queen Anne’s war of the War of Spanish Succession
ii. France recognized that the House of Hanover would accede to the English throne
2. France
a. King Louis XIV- absolute monarchy
b. Possesses the largest European population
c. Had advanced economy
d. Administrative structure- Louis prevented his ministers and the local elite from
capturing or limiting his power
e. Had also been drained of resources because of the wars
f. In need of reconstruction
i. economic recovery due to Louis’ wars which brought widespread death and destruction

15

Explain why there was no lasting peace in the period between the peace of Westfalia in 1648 and the Peace of Paris in 1763


•Impact of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648):
•The ruler of a land would determine the official religion of that land.
•Recognized the independence of the Swiss Confederacy
•France became Europe’s dominant power
•Spain and Germany were weakened
•Austria and Prussia would rise in power
•“Firmly established the competitive nationalism of the modern world.”

•Europe in the mid-18th century:
•“The statesmen of the period generally assumed that warfare could further national interests. No forces or powers saw it in their interest to prevent war or maintain peace.” (Ch. 16-page 532)

•Conflicts were fought between professional soldiers—rarely impacted civilian populations.

16

Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe's rapid population growth in the 18th century

Industrial revolution had increased the average per capita of Europe and declined the rate of famine

Agricultural revolution also had a crucial effect on the rapid population growth by increasing the food supplies.
a. “little ice age’ during the 17th century à less food during 17th century

17

How and to what extent did the commercial revolution transform the year economy and diplomatic balance of power from 1650 to 1763

Europe witnessed a great change in economy and diplomatic balance of power in the 1600’s and the 1700’s, and such a change was the result of the Commercial Revolution. Kings in the time of the Commercial Revolution focused on centralizing their empires and desired to increase their power through these empires. Such desires, along with the nations’ search for wealth, gave rise to the economic factors of the Commercial Revolution, including bullionism, mercantilism, the rise of joint-stock companies, and the expansion of trade across other parts of the world. The Commercial Revolution’s groundbreaking political and economic characteristics created strong and lasting effects on Europe that would even extend towards today.
The Moneylender and His Wife, Quentin Matsys

•Kings and governments wanted to achieve political centralization
•Political centralization would give leaders a chance to promote the economy
•England opportune to economic advancement due to factors that would establish order (strong Parliament, cabinet system)
•Louis XIV of France and Cardinal Richelieu succeeded in limiting the nobility’s power for some time, thus allowing for economic support
How the Economy was Changed

18

Analyze the economic technological and institutional factors responsible for Western Europe's donation of world trade from 1650 to 1800

Economic Factors:
a. mercantalism
b. flota system

Technological
a. Improved boats and ships
b. improved maps for navigation

institutional
a. bullion fleets administered from, Seville
b. colonial empires of France, Spain, England, Netherlands, Portugal, and Dutch

19

Describe and analyze the economic cultural and social changes that led to an sustained Europe's rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650 to 1800

During the years between 1650-1800, there was a time where there was time where there was little war, famine and plague, resulting in an extension of life and the overall increase in population, most specifically, England. This initial growth continued due to the demand for products and economy, the norms of female culture and life to change and the societal change within family dynamics.

20

Analyze the ways in which European monarchs use both the arts and the sciences to enhance the power in the. Circa 1500 to 1800

Arts and sciences were both very important aspects of culture in the time period of 1500-1800, as they are today. The type of art that a monarch of the 1500s-1800s liked and promoted could affect how well liked they were by the people they ruled over. The sciences became much more advanced during this time period. Guns and artillery became available. Rulers who had these tools had a military advantage over rulers who did not. Technology such as the printing press and navigational tools helped countries to gain power as well. Both the arts and sciences played key roles in enhancing state power, however, the advances in science helped monarchs to strengthen their countries more, because the advances in science helped them to gain military power, spread their ideas through books or pamphlets, and explore new areas that had vast amounts of resources.