Flashcards in Unit 22-24 Deck (21)
Analyze how and why Western European attitudes toward children and child bearing changed in the period 1750 to 1900
•going through industrial revolution
•children were seen as negligent and discipline was servere.
•Women had many children, however a lot of children were abandoned or would die; which •held back mothers from making close ties with their children.
•Jean-Jacques Rousseau brought new ideas to families about children during pre-industrial Europe and not too much longer
•Europe started to advance in technology and medicine which led mothers to have less children, abandonment rates went down, and •emotional ties between the child and mother grew.
• larger because agriculture was the primary way of making wages to survive on. In the rual areas,
• many women could not economically afford to raise a child.
•Abortion was illegal, therefore many rual mothers turned to infinticide.
•In the cities, women who could not raise a child put them in foundling homes.
Died in the fondling homes
In the 19th century little families
Advances in technology led to lower mortality rate
Rousseau's attitude towards children and teaching methods inspired parents to be more involved in childrens lives. Once technological advances occurred, overall it seems as though mothers felt they were less likely to lose their child so they were more likely to be tender and caring towards their children.
Referring to specific individual Or works discuss the ways in which two of the following expressed the concept of nationalism in the 19 century artists composers and writers
Compare and contrast foreign-policy goals and achievements of Metternich and Bismarck
--Big symbol of conservatism in the first half of the 19th century
-Foreign Minister of Austria
-Played a crucial role at the congress of Vienna:
guided by the principle of legitimacy=to restore peace and order in Europe it is necessay to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions
New arrangement of territory: Metternich believes it to have avoided great danger by creating a balance of power
-waged war only when all other diplomatic alternatives had been exhausted and when he was he was reasonably sure that all the military and diplomatic advantages were on his side
often was a defender of peace because he believed that the advantages won from war "no longer justifies the risks involved"
Danish War (1864) -Bismarck realizes that in order for Prusssia to expand its power, Austria would have to be excluded from German affairs
Austro-Prussian War (1866) -bismark is able to show that liberalism and nationalism can be separated
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
European women's lives changed in the course of the 19 century politically economically and socially identify and explain the reasons for those changes
Ownership of property
Socialist parties fighting for woman's suffrage
White collar jobs opened from industrial revolution
Socially people's views were changing
Increase in medical techniques and urbanization
Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism 19 century
Industrial Revolutionand the rise of capitalism
Evaluate how The ideas of Charles Darwin and Sigmund challenged enlightenment assumptions about human behavior and the role of reason
Both Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud were characterized for challenging previous Enlightenment thinking, through their theories of evolution, explanation of rationalization and new perspectives of scientific
-Humans evolve over time
-idea of evolution shattered the church
-brought about new perspective of scientific thought
-Animals are no less than people
-On the Origin of Species
-The Decent Of Man
-id, ego, & super ego
-taking into account human desire, pleasure, & morality
-combination of all 3 lead to a healthy mind
-challenged idea that logic and reason were superior to emotion and passion
-The Interpretation of Dreams
-Oedipus complex (infant's craving for the possession of the parent of opposite sex)
Western Civilization 4th Edition. (pages 668 & 713)
Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance Reformation. To the relationship between the artist in society and the late 19 century
Historians speak of the rise of mass politics in the period from 1882 1914 to find the phenomenon and analyze it's effects on European politics
This was when the vote in Europe was expanded to all men and in some countries even some women were allowed to vote.
. Ordinary people felt increasing loyalty to their
B. By 1914 universal male suffrage was the rule (female suffrage emerged after WWI)
C. Politicians and parties in national parliaments
represented the people more responsibly as increased
D. The welfare state emerged, first in Germany, then in Britain, France and other countries
E. Increased literacy: governments came to believe public education was important to provide society with well informed and responsible citizens.
F. Governments were often led by conservatives who
manipulated nationalism to create a sense of unity and
divert attention away from underlying class conflic
Describe and analyze responses to industrialization by the working class between 1850 and 1914
One thing the working class did was to organize unions in order to secure higher pay and better working conditions.
From the old cottage system to factories, That led to many different affects on the worker in employer-employee relations , living standard , working conditions , and family relations
Poor living conditions
Hard long hours
Analyze how industrialization and imperialism contributed to the development of consumer culture in 1850 and 1914
In the second half of the 19 century most European governments were conservative to what extent is the question about an accurate statement you specific examples from at least two countries
In the. 1815 and 1900 political liberalization progressed much further in Western Europe in Russia analyze the social and economic reasons for this difference
Analyze anti-Semitism in Europe from the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s to 1939
was a political scandal that divided France from its beginning in 1894 until it was finally resolved in 1906.
Accused of passing secrets to German army
To what extent did the structure of Russian government and society affect its economic development in the 18th and 19th centuries
-Tsars did not want to share power
-Under Catherine the Great:
-1785: Catherine issued charters to nobles and townsmen
-The Charter to the Nobility liberated the nobles from service
-Gave them rights that not even the autocracy could change
-Catherine got the nobility to get more actively involved in economic activity
-This increased demand for serf labor
-Resulted in increasing exploitation of serfs
-Russian republic was of great size and abundant natural resources
-Played a big role in economy of the Soviet Union
-In first decades of the Soviet regime, resources led to great economic advances
-Included: development of mining, metal industry, heavy engineering, expansion of the railway network, and a huge increase in the energy supply
People forced into marriages
Society became center of scientific research
Analyze the ways in which two of the following groups challenged British liberalism between 1880 and 1914 feminist Irish nationalist or socialist
Analyze the impact of science and technology on European society in the period from 1800 to 1900
•Innovations that improved public health in the 1800s:
•Modernized Sewer Systems: Sir Joseph William Bazalgette built a cleaner system to improve public health in London.
•Improvements in the Understanding of disease:
•Louis Pastuer improved the public's knowledge about germs and developed effective ways to kill them.
•Joseph Lister also invented medicinal techniques and contributed to the acceptance of germ theory over miasmatic theory.
•Increase in average wages: This improvement made it easier for many people to buy medicine, and gain information on the prevention of disease.
•increased job opprotunities throughout the industrial revolution,
•vaccine, increased ease of transporation with rail roads- made shiping ang moving people/things easier, the indutrial revolution changing the work/family live to create seperate spheres, decreased through mortality rates, also the creation of new town/ buildings-
•the building of the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition in 1851, and Louis Napoloen III having Hauss rebiuld the streets of Paris, also the creation of labor unions to protect the rights of the growing size of factory workers-
•also drecreasing the number of agricultural workers.
Compare and contrast how two of the following states attempted to hold together an empire in the period 1850 to 1914. Austria -Hungary Russia and Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire instituted local and national reforms in different branches of government in an attempt to unify their empire in a time of crisis. Russia Domestic reform began with Alexander II, who was in power from 1855 until 1881.
Russian serfs were granted freedom on March 3, 1861
Since there was a lack of income to the state due to the collapse of the feudal system, villagers would make installment payments on their properties to compensate.
Huge labor reserves became available
An entirely new Russian judicial system was established; new to the system was the idea of equality of all parties involved in a case, public hearings, and a trial by jury. The system was completely unified, a large step away from the previous assortment of estate of the realm courts.
Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and Germany
•Both used war
•Both involved France
•Austria – common enemy
•Each country had to unite the North and South
•Both prime ministers (analysis – used methods of politicians)
•Somewhat conservative (Bismarck more than Cavour)
•Gained foreign sympathies
• Machiavellian (deceptive diplomacy
–Used more diplomatic methods
–Italy occupied by Austria
–Had to deal w/other unifiers (Garibaldi)
–Influenced by Enlightenment
–Unification for economic progress
–Italian irredentia (It. Not totally unified)
–Unity through three wars
–Relied on Prussian military might
–Repressed opposition, censored press
–Came from Junker (noble) class
Discuss the economic policies and institutes that characterized mercantilist systems from 1600 to 1800
Main economic philosophy collection of gov. Policies
Balance of trade more goods leaving country to be sold making more money
Jean batiste Colbert finance making self sufficient state inspection regulation of goods
High tariffs imports
Analyze the development of the various forms of European socialism in the 1800s
Counter to liberalism was Socialism, which sought economic equality for all, and was very much against the Laissez Faire ideal of liberalism. Socialism looked at the free-market economies of Western Europe in the midst of the Industrial Revolution and saw exploited workers leading miserable existences while manufacturers profited enormously. Socialists felt that with the rich profiting so much, the poor should get some of the benefits, since worker's labor supported the entire system. Socialists, therefore, wanted to nationalize parts of the economy, such as industrial and financial sectors, giving these areas of the economy over to government control. Thus, the benefits could be distributed more equally to the various members of society. For example, Robert Owen, a manufacturer in Manchester, grew upset at his worker's living conditions and began paying higher wages then other manufacturers did, and he treated his workers well, counseling them against drinking and other vices. In fact, Owen did fairly well in business despite giving his workers a higher than ordinary wage. Owen wanted to continue reform, and eventually he became frustrated with the slow pace of change in Britain. In 1825, he founded New Harmony, Indiana, an experimental socialist community in the United States. Other leading socialist thinkers included the Frenchmen Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier. Fourier wanted to organize society into groups called "phalansteries", in which everyone would be able to do whatever work they wanted and all be paid the same wages. Some phalansteries actually were set up in the United States.