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How and to what extent did enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution and the. 1789 to 1799

The movement of people and ideas that fostered the value or belief that change and reform were both possible and desirable.

Rousseaus "general will" and voltaires "deism" influenced the third estate
•rd estate revolting against the monarchy
Fall of the Bastille
National Assembly
Declaration on the Rights of Man and the Citizen

A. Philosophes wanted change in the Church
1. Believed hindered pursuit of rational life and scientific study of humanity and nature

(French Revolution), was based on a divine God and the Church

Clergy taught humans that improvement in human nature was impossible on Earth


Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the third estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution and analyze the extent to which one of these groups was able to address it's grievances in the. 1789 to 1799

Thesis: The various groups in the Third Estate of Olden France held various grievances, from money problems to political wishes, leading to radical methods to obtain their freedom from the government.

Peasants' views
•Cahiers d'doleances
•75-80% of total population, owned 35-40% of land
•Obligations to local landlords... "relics of feudalism"
•Payment of fees for use of village facilities, tithes to clergy, allowances for nobles to hunt on land
•Nobility isolated from peasants
•Feudal dues
Peasants totally disadvantaged when pests came in, because nobles protected those pests for hunting

Economic discontent
Riots in relation to bread
Excluded from social, political priveleges
Large separation in level
Peasants' extent of addressing grievances
American Revolution's effects
Provided that liberal political ideas of the Enlightenment were not merely the vapid utterances of intellectuals
Lafayette returns from war with ideas of liberties and republican ideas
Robert-Francois Damiens attempts to kill Louis XV
Estates General

Abbe Sieyes
What is the third estate? Everything. What has it been thus far in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something.
Tennis Court Oath (combined with all other groups)
National Assembly
Fall of the Bastille
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
October Days
Bread riots
Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror
Thermidorean Reaction
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
Guillotine as symbol of revolution
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity



Assess the ways in which women participated in and influence two of the following the Renaissance the Reformation the French Revolution

Renaissance:no legal power, prim and proper,women in different classes had different roles, rarely if they expressed themselves it would be by male influence

Reformation: significant role (royal women and wives of reformers)

ook a traditional stance on "the women question"; they viewed women as biologically and therefore socially different from men, destined to play domestic roles inside the family rather than public, political ones. Among the many writers of the Enlightenment, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published the most influential works on the subject of women's role in society. In his book Emile, he described his vision of an ideal education for women. Women should take an active role in the family, Rousseau insisted, by breast-feeding and educating their children, but they should not venture to take active positions outside the home.


Analyze the ways in which the events of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic period lead people to challenge enlightenment views of society politics and human nature

Society storming of the steel caused economic stress

Human nature
Peasants and outlaws seized country sides

Politics Community of public safety Robespierre rain of terror


"Napoleon was a child of the enlightenment"
Assess the validity of the statement above. Use examples referring both to specific aspect of the enlightenment and Napoleon's policies and attitudes

1) The French Revolution saw equal rights being given to women for the first time in French history. A very liberal move. However, when Napoleon came into power, he revoked this change in favor of increased stability for France overall (a more conservative move and not a product of the enlightenment).

Napoleon was a very innovative military commander but I would not say that this means he is "liberal" because of that specifically. However, Napoleon's victories across Europe created a massive upheaval of the social order of Europe. This by its very nature was very threatening to the monarchies of Europe. These monarchies fought Napoleon not for land or money, but instead for their own survival (institutions exerting power / force in order to keep the status quo of the institution intact).

3) The Napoleonic Code: Freedom of religion, removal of restrictions based upon one's birth, and government jobs being given out based upon merit instead of based upon the old system. Napoleon put this code in place in every area he conquered and it stayed in place even AFTER he was removed from power. This was a very liberal policy.


Describe and analyze the impact of the rise of Russia on international relations in Europe. 1685 to 1815



Discuss how to structure shown above arc of triumph and the Crystal Palace reflect the societies and cultures that produced them

Crystal Industrial Age
Great exhibition
Latest technology
Relies on wealth and economy rather than military

Ark. Militarists nation minument to army more nationalist not advanced in architecture

Industrialization revolution advanced ae he London largest city wdvances machine water mill puddling

Expansion navy trading with Latin America. Revenue on war the French rev navy did well


Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 18 30



Identify the social and economic factors increase industrial England that explain why England was a first country to industrialize

. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal

Britain had a lot of things working for it (in the realm of industrial development) that other nations didn't.
Britain had a large amount of capital that could be used for investing in new industry (something the French, in particular lacked at the time). She had rich sources of coal and other materials needed for early industry. She had a strong trade empire, which allowed for the spread of ideas and new industry. She had a population that was more free to move around and try new things.

Having the ability to produce new and better goods gave the Europeans an edge over nations in the rest of the world.

Population growth

Financial renovations

Enlightenment and scientific revolution

Government policies
British Navy
World ride trade due to canals

Cottage industry relied on labor


between 1750 and 1815 more Western Europeans were employed in cottage industry and factory production analyze how these two types of employment infected employer employee relations working conditions family relations in the standard of living during this period

Industrial revolution

The spinning of cotton into threads for weaving into cloth had traditionally taken place in the homes of textile workers. In 1769, however, Richard Arkwright patented his ‘water frame’, that allowed large-scale spinning to take place on just a single machine. This was followed shortly afterwards by James Hargreaves’ ‘spinning jenny’, which further revolutionised the process of cotton spinning. The original patent for this technology is shown below.

The weaving process was similarly improved by advances in technology. Edmund Cartwright’s power loom, developed in the 1780s, allowed for the mass production of the cheap and light cloth.

Woman and children working in poor conditions


Analyze the problems and opportunities associated with the rapid urbanization of Western Europe in the 19th century

Positive creation of power machines and factories made new job opportunities. The machines are fast and allowed people to transport raw materials. Went from rural and agriculture to urban industrial

Urbanization is the movement of people living on countrysides to cities and city building
Creation of railroad system traveling and road transportation

Negatives were that it was overcrowded many health problemsno sanitation code so diseases playing to the streets
After he work was dirty and dangerous and many bosses pushed hard long hoursyou had a shorter life expectancy he worked in a factory and the government meant didn't pursue any laws to help the safety of the workers

Child labor many children are working long hours instead of going to school


Analyze the shifts in the European balance of power in the period between 1763 and 1848

After Napoleons rule The rulers of Europe wanted to make sure that no one came close to powering Europe again

• establish the Congress of Vienna there they recognized Europe boundaries where they can Ally together and if I need to defeat a nation

•Poland was ruled by Czar Alexander he was liberal because of this people started to do things you don't like the hutch it out with the government so the Reformation began to rise and secret societies formed

Germany was in the Romantics is an era


compare and contrast political liberalism with political conservatism in the first half of the 19th century in Europe

Conservatives wanted less government intervention they desired social stability through monarchical rule
Believed in tradition and hierarchy
•There were three main essential anchors of social harmony: Monarchy, Aristocracy and Church.
•not believe that all men were created equal, and that some men were in fact born greater than others. A nation has to have a wide
•each nation was dedicated to increasing the power of the nation.

• each individuals had inherent rights and every citizen should be able to work their way up in the social class of the nation.
•goal was complete economic, personal and political freedom.
•Liberals were made up of primarily the middle class. While the liberals sound like the good guys in the nineteenth century, it is important to keep in mind that
•they did not believe in giving power to women, the poor nor the uneducated.

Conservatism vs Liberalism was a battle between monarchs and the middle class to gain power.


Analyze the extent to which conservatives in continental Europe for successful in achieving their goals in the years between 1815 and 1851 draw examples from at least two states

Austria controlled by conservatives
Metternich leader of congress of Vienna conservative not in favor of revolution

France after French rev Napoleon in chaos liberalist brought more chaos conservatism in control government In Liberal direction less succesful because of socialist

British conservatism ineffective and unsuccessful gave citizens more voting rights


Analyze how economic and social developments affected woman in England in the period from 1700 to 1850

Before the Industrial Revolution most people lived near home most lived by farming and agriculture
But because of the agricultural revolution people lost their benefits
Women were identified in the inside work while men on the outside work

Middle-class families who couldn't afford anything mothers would be teachers
Some supported their cells by writing

worked in the domestic system


Compare and contrast enlightenment and romantic views of the relationship between God and the individual

Enlightened world rational diest way

Romantics religion based to mask human nature
Believe enlighten threatened imagination revival of Christianity life not rational


To what extent did romanticism challenge enlightenment views of being humans and of the natural world

Romantics indivulaism follow inner drives led to rebellion romantic hero express authors feelings cared about people science no room for imagination science bad

Enlightens books for government or church no care for others nature a subject science good


Analyze three examples of the relationship between romanticism and nationalism before 1850

Napoleon expansion of France romantic hero archetype needed support used romantic ideals to evil nationalism Napoleonic code equality and liberation like romantics

Greek revolution strong national base could not spark revolution got support from others countries who embraced the culture

Grimes fairy tales certain character fit nation used both roman and nation to create kit German stated wanted for German culture national idea wanted to show unique color


Compare and contrast enlightenment views of nature with reference to specific individuals in their work

Enlightenment - beauty classical ism
Romantics - based on era age
Friedrich-landscape w natural details
Nature- Devine life
Depended on ones inner feelings

Turner sought to convey moods not accuracy

Delacroix exotic passion theatrical movement of color own belief