Flashcards in Chap 7 vocab Deck (39):

1

## electromagnetic radiation

### Oscillating, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields moving simultaneously through space as waves manifested as visble light, x-rays, microwaves, radio waves ect

2

## Frequency (v)

### The number of cycles a waave undergoes per second. rated to s^-1. also Hz

3

## Speed of Light (c)

### A fundamental constant giving the speed at which electromagnetic radiation travels in a vacuum

4

## Amplitude

### the height of the crest of a wave; related to the intensity of the energy.

5

## electromagnetic spectrum

### the continuum of wavelengths of radiant energy.

6

## infrared (IR)

### The region of the electromagnetic spectrum between the microwave and visible regions.

7

## Ultraviolet (UV)

### Radiation in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible and x-ray regions

8

## Refraction

### A phenomenon in which a wave changes its speed and therefore its direction as it passes through a phase boundary into a different medium

9

## Diffraction

### The phenomenon in which a wave striking the edge of an object bends around it.

10

## Quantum Number

### A number that specifies a property of an orbital or an electron

11

## Planck's constant (h)

### A proportionality constant relating the energy and frequency of a photon, equal to 6.626x10^-34J(s)

12

## Quantum

### A packet of energy equal to hv. The smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed

13

## Photoelectric Effect

### The observation that when monochromatic light of sufficient frequency shines on a meta, an electric current is produced

14

## Photon

### A quantum of electromagnetic radiation

15

## Line spectrum

### A series of separated lines of different colors representing photons whose wavelengths are characteristic of an element

16

## stationary state

### On of the allowable energy levels of the atom in which it does not release or absorb energy.

17

## ground state

### The electron configuration of an atom or ion that is lowest in energy

18

## excited state

### Any electron configuration of an atom or molecule other than the lowest energy state

19

## spectrometry

### Any instrumental technique that uses a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to measure the atomic and molecular energy levels of a substance

20

## emission spectrum

### The line spectrum produced when excited atoms return to lower energy levels and emit photons characteristic of the element

21

## absorption spectrum

### The spectrum produced when atoms absorb specific wavelengths of incoming light and become excited from lower to higher energy levels

22

## de Broglie wavelength

### The wavelength of a moving particle obtained from the de Broglie equation

23

## wave-particle duality

### The principle stating that both matter and energy have wavelike and particle-like properties

24

## uncertainty principle

### the principle stated by Werner Heisenberg that it is impossible to know simultaneously the exact position and velocity of a particle; the principle becomes important only for particles of very small mass

25

## quantum mechanics

### the branch of physics that examines the wave motion of objects on the atomic size

26

## Schrodinger equation

### An equation that describes how the electron matter-wave changes in space around the nucleus

27

## atomic orbital

### A mathematic expression that describes the motion of the electron's matter-wave in terms of time and position in the region of the nucleus.

28

## electron density diagram

### The pictorial representation for a given energy sub level of the quantity() as a function of r

29

## electron cloud depiction

### An imaginary representation of an electron's rapidly changing position around the nucleus over time

30

## radial probability distribution plot

### The graphic depiction of the total probability distribution() of an electron in the region near the nucleus.

31

## probability contour

### A shape that defines the volume around an atomic nucleus within which an electron spends a given percentage of its time

32

## principal quantum number(n)

### A positive integer that specifies the energy and relative size of an atomic orbital; a number that specifies an energy level in an atom

33

## angular momentum quantum number(l)

### An integer from 0 to n-1 that is related to the shape of an atomic orbital

34

## magnetic quantum number(ml)

### An integer from -l through 0 to l that specifies the orientation of an atomic orbital in the three dimensional space about the nucleus

35

## level

### A specific energy state of an atom given by the principal quantum number (n)

36

## sublevel

### An energy substate of an atom within a level. Given by the n and l values, the sub level designates the size and shape of the atomic orbitals

37

## s orbital

### An atomic orbital with l=0

38

## p orbital

### An atomic orbital with l=1

39