Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (33):
1

active site

The location on the surface of an enzyme where the substrates bind to the enzyme and the reaction occurs

2

activity

The number of reaction cycles that an enzyme catalyzes per second

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alpha carbon

The carbon atom in an amino acid that is between the carboxyl group and the amino group

4

alpha helix

A protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a tight coil

5

amino acid

An organic compound that contains an amino group and a carboxyl group separated by one carbon atom

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beta sheet

Protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a set of parallel strands

7

coenzyme

An organic molecule that is required by an enzyme

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cofactor

Any substance that is required by an enzyme

9

competitive inhibitor

A molecule that fits into the active site of an enzyme and prevents the normal substrate from entering

10

C-terminal amino acid

The amino acid that contains a free carboxyl group in a polypeptide

11

Denature

To change the way a polypeptide is folded, normally rendering the polypeptide inactive

12

effector

A molecule or ion that binds an enzyme outside of the active site and changes the activity of the enzyme

13

enzyme-product complex

The combination of an enzyme and the products of the reaction it catalyzes, while the products remain in the active site.

14

enzyme-substrate complex

the combination of an enzyme and the reactants of the reaction it catalyzes. The reactant molecules bound to active site

15

essential amino acid

An amino acid that humans cannot make from other nutrients and must be present in a diet

16

hydrophilic interaction

The attraction of hydrophilic amino acid side chains to the water molecules that surround a protein

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hydrophobic interaction

The tendency of hydrophobic amino acid side chains to cluster in the center of a protein, avoiding surrounding water molecules

18

nitrogen cycle

The series of chemical and biological reactions that interconvert N2, inorganic ions such as NH4 and NO3-

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nitrogen fixation

The reactions that convert N2 into nitrogen containing compounds

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nonessential amino acid

An amino acid that humans can make from other nutrients

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N-terminal amino acid

The amino acid that contains a free amino group in a polypeptide

22

peptide bond

The covalent bond between nitrogen and carbon that links consecutive amino acids into polypeptide

23

Peptide group

The amide group that links consecutive amino acids in a polypeptide

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polypeptide

A molecule that is built from amino acids linked by peptide bonds; a protein

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primary structure

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide

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Protein

A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order.

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quaternary structure

The way that two or more polypeptide chains bing together to form an active protein

28

secondary structure

The coiling or folding of a polypeptide chain that is a result of hydrogen bonding between peptide groups

29

side chain

The portion of an amino acid that distinguishes it from other amino acids

30

substrate

A reactant in a reaction that is categorized by an enzyme

31

tietiary structure

The folding of a polypeptide chain that is a result of interacting involving amino acid side chains

32

triple helix

A protein structure in which three polypeptide chains coil around one another

33

urea cycle

The sequence of reactions by which humans convert ammonium ions into urea