Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (73):
The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount
A property that results in a liquid rising through a narrow space against the pull of gravity
A measure of the resistance of liquid to flow
Solid with a well-defined shape because of the orderly arrangement of the atoms, molecules, or ions.
A solid that has a poorly defined shape because it lacks extensive molecular-level ordering of its particles.
The three dimensional arrangement of points created by choosing each point to be at the same location within each particle of a crystal; thus, the lattice consists of all points with identical surroundings
The smallest portion of a crystal that , if repeated in all three directions, gives the crystals
In a crystal, the number of nearest neighbors surrounding a particle. In a complex, the number of ligand atoms bonded to the central metal ion.
simple cubic unit cell
A unit cell in which a particle occupies each corner of a cube
body-centered cubic unit cell
A unit cell in which a particle lies at each corner and in the center of a cube
face-centered cubic unit cell
A unit cell in which a particle occurs at each corner and in the center of each face of a cube.
The percentage of the available volume occupied by atoms, ions, or molecules in a unit cell
hexagonal closet packing
A crystalline structure based on the hexagonal unit cell in which the layers have an abab pattern.
cubic closet packing
A crystal structure based on the face-centered cubic unit cell in which the layers have an abcabc pattern.
x-ray diffraction analysis
An instrumental technique used to determine dimensions of crystal structure by measuring the diffraction patterns caused by x-rays impinging on the crystal
A solid consisting of individual atoms held together by dispersion forces; the frozen noble gases are the only examples.
A solid held together by intermolecular forces between individual molecules.
A solid whose unit cell contains cations and anions
A solid whose individual atoms are held together by metallic bonding
network covalent solid
A solid in which all the atoms are bonded covalently so that individual molecules are not present
A qualitative description of metallic bonding proposing that metal atoms pool their valence electrons into a delocalized "sea" of electrons in which the metal cores are submerged in an orderly array.
An extension of molecular orbital theory that explains many properties of metals and other solids, in particular, the differences in electrical conductivity of conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.
In band theory, the lower energy portion of the band of molecular orbitals, which is filled with valence electrons.
In band theory, the empty, higher energy portion of the band of molecular orbitals into which electrons move when conducting heat and electricity
A substance that conducts an electric current well.
A substance whose electrical conductivity is poor at room temperature but increases significantly with rising temperature
A substance that does not conduct an electric current.
The ability to conduct a current with no loss of energy to resistive heating.
The substance that dissolves in the solvent
The substance in which the solute dissolves.
Soluble in any proportion
The maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a fixed quantity of a particular solvent at a specific temperature
An empirical observation stating that substances having similar kinds of intermolecular forces dissolve in each other
The oriented cluster of water molecules that surrounds an ion in aqueous solution
ion-induced dipole force
The attractive force between an ion and the dipole it induces in the electron cloud of a nearby non polar molecule
dipole-induced dipole force
The intermolecular attraction between a polar molecule and the oppositely charged pole it induces in a nearby molecule
A mixture of elements with metallic properties that is typically a solid-solid solution.
heat of solution
The enthalpy change occurring when a solution forms from solute and solvent
The process of surrounding a solute particle with solvent particles
Solvation in water
heat of hydration
The enthalpy change occurring when 1mol of a gaseous species is hydrated
The ratio of the charge of an ion to its volume
A thermodynamic quantity related to the number of ways the energy of a system can be dispersed through the motions of its particles
A solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature
A solution in which more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature
An unstable solution in which more solute is dissolved than in a saturated solution
A law stating that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
A concentration term expressed as number of moles of solute dissolved in 1000g of solvent.
The fraction by mass expressed as a percentage
A concentration term defined as the volume of solute in 100 volumes of solution.
A concentration term expressed as the ratio of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles present.
A property of a solution that depends on the number, not the identity, of solute particles.
A substance that conducts a current when it dissolves in water.
A substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct an electric current
vapor pressure lowering
The decrease in the vapor pressure of a solvent caused by the presence of dissolved solute particles.
A low stating the the vapor pressure of solvent above a solution equals the mole fraction of solvent times the vapor pressure of pure solvent.
A solution whose vapor pressure equals the mole fraction of the solvent times the vapor pressure of the pure solvent.
boiling point elevation
The increase int he boiling point of a solvent caused by the presence of dissolved solute
freezing point depression
The lowering of the freezing point of a solved caused by the presence of dissolved solute particles.
A membrane that allows solvent, but not solute, to pass through.
The process by which solvent flows through a semipermeable membrane from a dilute to a concentrated solution.
The pressure that results from the ability of solvent, but not solute, particles to cross a semipermeable membrane. The pressure required to prevent the net movement of solvent across the membrane
A cluster of ions of net opposite charge surrounding a given ion in solution.
The study of the rates and mechanism of reactions.
The change in the concentrations of reactants with time.
The change in concentration of reactant divided by a finite time period.
The reaction rate at a particular, given by the slope of a tangent to a plot of reactant concentration vs. time.
The instantaneous rat occurring as soon as the reactants are mixed,, that is, at t=0.
An equation that expresses the rate of a reaction as a function of reactant concentrations
The proportionality constant that relates reaction to rate to reactant concentrations.
The exponent of a reactant concentration in a rate law that shows how the rate is affected by changes in that concentration
integrated rate law
A mathematical expression for reactant concentration a s a function of time.