Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (16):
1

alcoholic fermentation

An energy producing metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down into ethanol and carbon dioxide

2

anomers

One of the two isomeric forms of a carbohydrate that differ in the position of the hydroxyl group attached to the hemiacetal carbon atom.

3

carbohydrate

An organic compound with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, or a large molecule built fro compounds that have this ratio.

4

Krebs cycle

A catabolic pathway that breaks down the acetyl-CoA into CO2, producing energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2

5

disaccharide

A carbohydrate that is built from two molecules of simple sugars

6

fermentation

A catabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates using the reactions of glycolysis, but that doesn't require oxygen and doesn't produce NADH and FADH2

7

glycolysis

A catabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate, producing energy in the forms of ATP and NADH

8

glycosidic linkage

The chemical link between simple sugars in a disaccharide or polysaccharide

9

hemiacetal

An organic compound that is formed when an alcohol combines with an aldehyde or a ketone

10

high energy molecule

A biological compound that produces a significant amount of energy when it is hydrolyzed, such as ATP

11

lactic acid fermentation

A metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down into lactate ions

12

monosaccharide

The simplest type of carbohydrate

13

polysaccharide

A carbohydrate that is built from many simple sugars linked together

14

reducing sugar

A mono- or disaccharide that contains a hemiacetal group, allowing it to be oxidized easily

15

storage polysaccharide

A polysaccharide whose primary function is a fuel source for an organism

16

structural polysaccharide

A polysaccharide whose primary function is to supply the rigid framework of an organism