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Flashcards in chemistry_20151006230058 Deck (351):
1

Accuracy

How close an experimental measurement is to the true value

2

density

The mass of a substance divided by its volume

3

Derived unit

A metric unit that is created by adding a prefix to a base unit

4

Kelvin Scale

A temperature scale in which 0 degrees is the lowest possible temperature

5

mass

The resistance of a sample of matter to being accelerated, generally used interchangeably with weight

6

Precision

How close multiple measurements are to one another

7

standard

an object or substance that is used to check the accuracy of a measuring device

8

unit

A standard, defined amount that is used to express other measurements.

9

volume

The amount of space an object occupies

10

weight

the force exerted by a gravitational field on an object that is directly proportional to its mass

11

temperature

A measure of how hot or cold a substance is relative to another substance

12

heat

The energy transferred between objects because of a difference in their temperatures only

13

extensive property

A property, such as mass, that depends on the quantity of substance present

14

intensive property

A property such as density that does not depend on the quantity of substance present

15

uncertainity

A characteristic of every measurement that results from the inexactness of the measuring device and the need to estimate when taking a reading

16

Ammonium

NH4 +1

17

Carbonate

CO3 -2

18

Chlorate

ClO3 -1

19

Chromate

CrO4 -2

20

Cyanide

CN -1

21

Dihydrogen phosphate

H2PO4 -1

22

Acetate

CH3COO -1

23

Hydrogen carbonate

HCO3 -1

24

Hydrogen phosphate (

HPO4 -2

25

Hydrogen sulfate

HSO4 -1

26

Hydroxide

OH -1

27

Hydrogen sulfide

HS -1

28

Nitrite

NO2 -1

29

Nitrate

NO3 -1

30

Oxalate

C2O4 -2

31

Perchlorate

ClO4 -1

32

Permanganate

MnO4 -1

33

Phosphate

PO4 -3

34

Phosphite

PO3 -3

35

Sulfate

SO4 -2

36

Sulfite

SO3 -2

37

Mercury I

Hg2 +2

38

Mercury II

Hg +2

39

Copper I

Cu +

40

Copper II

Cu 2+

41

Iron II

Fe 2+

42

Iron III

Fe 3+

43

Tin IV

Sn 4+

44

Lead II

Pb 2+

45

Acetic acid

CH3COOH

46

Hydrochloric acid

HCl

47

Hydrobromic acid

HBr

48

Hydroiodic acid

HI

49

nitric acid

HNO3

50

Sulfuric acid

H2SO4

51

Sulfurous acid

H2SO3

52

Chloric acid

HClO3

53

Perchloric acid

HClO4

54

Phosphoric acid

H3PO4

55

H

1) Hydrogen1A

56

He

2)Helium8A-but only has 2 valence electrons

57

C

6)Carbon4A

58

N

7)Nitrogen5A

59

O

8)Oxygen6A

60

F

9)Fluorine7A

61

Na

11)Sodium1A

62

Mg

12)Magnesium2A

63

Al

13)Aluminum3A

64

Si

14)Silicon4A

65

P

15)Phosphorus5A

66

S

16)Sulfur6A

67

Cl

17)Chlorine7A

68

K

19)Potassium1A

69

Ca

20)Calcium2A

70

Cr

24)Chromium6B

71

Mn

25)Manganese7B

72

Fe

26)Iron8B

73

Co

27)Cobalt8B

74

Cu

29)Copper1B

75

Zn

30)Zinc2B

76

Se

34)Selenium6A

77

Br

35)Bromine7A

78

Mo

42)Molybdenum6B

79

Ag

47)Silver1B

80

I

53)Iodine7A

81

Sn

50)Tin4A

82

Ba

56)Barium2A

83

Au

79)Gold1B

84

Hg

80)Mercury2B

85

Pb

82)Lead4A

86

atom

The smallest particle of an element

87

atomic mass unit

A unit of mass used to describe atoms and molecules, approximately equal to the mass of a proton or a neutron.

88

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom, used to identify the element

89

Atomic weight

The average mass of all atoms of an element on Earth

90

Avogadro's number

The number of particles in one mole

91

Chemical formula

A way to represent the numbers and types of atoms in a chemical compound

92

Chemical substance

A substance that is made from two or more elements in a fixed ratio

93

Electrically neutral atom

An atom that has no electrical charge

94

Electron

A subatomic particle; the negatively charged component of atoms

95

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances

96

Extensive property

A properties who numerical value depends o the amount of substance, such as mass or volume

97

formula unit

A group of atoms corresponding to a chemical formula

98

Formula weight

The mass of a single formula unit

99

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that contains two or more visibly distinct components

100

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture in which all components are evenly distributed

101

Intensive property

A measurable property that does not depend on the amount of substance, such as density

102

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have a different set of neutrons

103

Mass number

The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

104

matter

anything that has a mass

105

metal

an element or mixture of elements characterized by shiny appearance, ability to be molded without breaking, and conduct heat and electricity

106

Mixture

A combination of two or more substances in which the relative amounts of the substances can be varied

107

mole

An amount of a substance equal to its formula weight expressed in grams: 6.022x10^23

108

neutron

A subatomic particle; the electrically neutral component in atoms

109

noble gas

an element in group 8A

110

non-metal

An element characterized by dull appearance, brittleness,and does not conduct heat or electricity

111

nucleus

The cluster of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom

112

period

The elements in horizontal row of the periodic table

113

periodic table

A table that arranges the chemical elements based on their chemical properties

114

property

anything about matter that can be measured or observed

115

proton

a subatomic particle; the positively charged components of atoms

116

representative element

An element in groups 1A through 2A or 3A through 8A

117

Subatomic particles

A proton, neutron, and electron; one of the three particles that make up an atom

118

anion

A negatively charged ion

119

binary compound

A compound made from two elements

120

bonding electron pair

A pair of valence electrons that is shared by two atoms and that holds the atoms close to each other

121

cation

A positively charged ion

122

Chemical bond

An attractive force that holds atoms together in a chemical compound

123

Covalent bond

A chemical compound that is formed by the sharing of two electrons between two atoms

124

double bond

a covalent bond in which four elections are shared between two atoms

125

electronegativity

A measure of the attraction of an element for electrons

126

ion

An aotm or group of atoms in which the numbers of protons and electrons are different

127

ionic compound

A chemical compound that is made from ions

128

molecule

An electrically neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

129

monatomic ion

An ion that consists of a single charged atom

130

nonbonding electron pair

A pair of valence electrons that is not shared with another atom

131

nonpolar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which neither atom has an electrical charge

132

octet rule

the tendency of atoms to have 8 valence electrons when they form molecules or ions.

133

polar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared unequally

134

polyatomic ion

an ion that contains more than one atom

135

rule of charge balance

the rule that any ionic compound have equal amounts of positive and negative charge.

136

single bond

A covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons

137

triple bond

A covalent bond in which 6 electrons are shared between two atoms

138

stoichiometry

The study of the mass-mole-number relationships of chemical formulas and reactions

139

reactant

A starting substance in a chemical reaction

140

product

A substance formed in a chemical reaction

141

chemical equation

A statement that uses chemical formulas to express the identities and quantities of the substances involved in a chemical or physical change.

142

structural formula

A formula that shows the actual number of atoms, their relative placement, and the bonds between them.

143

combustion analysis

A method for determining the formula of a compound from the amounts of its combustion products.

144

isomer

One of two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different properties, often as a result of different arrangements of atoms

145

empirical formula

A chemical formula that shows the lowest relative number of atoms of each element in a compound

146

molecular formula

A formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in molecule of a compound

147

aldehyde

An organic compound that contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon dioxide

148

carbonyl group

A functional group that contains a carbon atom and an oxygen atom linked by a double bond

149

carboxylic acid

An organic compound that contains a carbonyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group

150

dehydrogenation reaction

A reaction in which an organic compound loses two hydrogen atoms, creating an alkene group

151

disulfide

An organic compound that contains two sulfur atoms bonded to each other; each sulfur atom is bonded to an alkyl group

152

hydrogenation reaction

A reaction in which an alkene or alone gains hydrogen atoms, becoming an alkane or an alkene

153

ketone

An organic compound that contains a carbonyl group bonded to two alkyl groups

154

metabolic pathway

A sequence of reactions in a living organism that converts one key molecule into another

155

oxidation reaction

A reaction that removes two hydrogen atoms from one or more molecules

156

reduction reaction

A reaction that adds hydrogen atoms to a molecule

157

alkylammonium ion

A cation in which a nitrogen atom forms four bonds, at least one of which is to an alkyl group

158

amine

An organic compound that contains a nitrogen atom bonded to a combination of alkyl groups and hydrogen atoms

159

carboxylate ion

An anion that is formed when a carboxylic acid loses a hydrogen ion

160

decarboxylation reaction

A reaction in which a carboxylic acid breaks down into a molecule of carbon dioxide and a smaller organic molecule

161

oxidative decarboxylation

A reaction between a carboxylic acid and a thiol that produces a thirster and a molecule of carbon dioxide

162

thioester

An organic compound that contains a surfer atom bonded to a carbonyl group and an alkyl group

163

zwitterion

An electrically neutral molecule that contains a positively ionized group and a negatively ionized group

164

amidation reaction

A reaction in which a carboxylic acid and an amine combine to form an amide

165

amide

An organic compound that contains a carbonyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom

166

anabolic pathway

The metabolic pathways that build large molecules from smaller ones and that consume energy

167

ATP Cycle

The reactions that make ATP from ADP and phosphate and then break the ATP back down, storing energy and then releasing it

168

catabolic pathway

The metabolic pathways that break down large molecules into smaller ones and that release energy

169

condensation reaction

A reaction in which two molecules combined to make a larger molecule and a molecule of water.

170

copolymer

A large molecule that is built from alternating molecules of two smaller substances

171

ester

An organic compound that contains an oxygen atom bonded to both a carbonyl group and an alkyl group

172

esterification reaction

A reaction that combines an alcohol and a carboxylic acid to make an ester

173

ether

An organic compound that contains an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl groups

174

hydrolysis reaction

A reaction in which a large molecule reacts with water, forming two smaller molecules

175

metabolism

All of the reactions that occur in a living organism

176

phosphoester

A compound formed when a phosphate ion condenses with an alcohol

177

phosphorylation reaction

A reaction that adds a phosphate group to another molecule

178

polymer

A large molecule that is built from repeating molecules of a smaller substance

179

saponification reaction

The reaction of an ester with a strong base to form an alcohol and a carboxylate salt

180

soap

A sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid

181

active site

The location on the surface of an enzyme where the substrates bind to the enzyme and the reaction occurs

182

activity

The number of reaction cycles that an enzyme catalyzes per second

183

alpha carbon

The carbon atom in an amino acid that is between the carboxyl group and the amino group

184

alpha helix

A protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a tight coil

185

amino acid

An organic compound that contains an amino group and a carboxyl group separated by one carbon atom

186

beta sheet

Protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a set of parallel strands

187

coenzyme

An organic molecule that is required by an enzyme

188

cofactor

Any substance that is required by an enzyme

189

competitive inhibitor

A molecule that fits into the active site of an enzyme and prevents the normal substrate from entering

190

C-terminal amino acid

The amino acid that contains a free carboxyl group in a polypeptide

191

Denature

To change the way a polypeptide is folded, normally rendering the polypeptide inactive

192

effector

A molecule or ion that binds an enzyme outside of the active site and changes the activity of the enzyme

193

enzyme-product complex

The combination of an enzyme and the products of the reaction it catalyzes, while the products remain in the active site.

194

enzyme-substrate complex

the combination of an enzyme and the reactants of the reaction it catalyzes. The reactant molecules bound to active site

195

essential amino acid

An amino acid that humans cannot make from other nutrients and must be present in a diet

196

hydrophilic interaction

The attraction of hydrophilic amino acid side chains to the water molecules that surround a protein

197

hydrophobic interaction

The tendency of hydrophobic amino acid side chains to cluster in the center of a protein, avoiding surrounding water molecules

198

nitrogen cycle

The series of chemical and biological reactions that interconvert N2, inorganic ions such as NH4 and NO3-

199

nitrogen fixation

The reactions that convert N2 into nitrogen containing compounds

200

nonessential amino acid

An amino acid that humans can make from other nutrients

201

N-terminal amino acid

The amino acid that contains a free amino group in a polypeptide

202

peptide bond

The covalent bond between nitrogen and carbon that links consecutive amino acids into polypeptide

203

Peptide group

The amide group that links consecutive amino acids in a polypeptide

204

polypeptide

A molecule that is built from amino acids linked by peptide bonds; a protein

205

primary structure

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide

206

Protein

A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order.

207

quaternary structure

The way that two or more polypeptide chains bing together to form an active protein

208

secondary structure

The coiling or folding of a polypeptide chain that is a result of hydrogen bonding between peptide groups

209

side chain

The portion of an amino acid that distinguishes it from other amino acids

210

substrate

A reactant in a reaction that is categorized by an enzyme

211

tietiary structure

The folding of a polypeptide chain that is a result of interacting involving amino acid side chains

212

triple helix

A protein structure in which three polypeptide chains coil around one another

213

urea cycle

The sequence of reactions by which humans convert ammonium ions into urea

214

alcoholic fermentation

An energy producing metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down into ethanol and carbon dioxide

215

anomers

One of the two isomeric forms of a carbohydrate that differ in the position of the hydroxyl group attached to the hemiacetal carbon atom.

216

carbohydrate

An organic compound with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, or a large molecule built fro compounds that have this ratio.

217

Krebs cycle

A catabolic pathway that breaks down the acetyl-CoA into CO2, producing energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2

218

disaccharide

A carbohydrate that is built from two molecules of simple sugars

219

fermentation

A catabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates using the reactions of glycolysis, but that doesn't require oxygen and doesn't produce NADH and FADH2

220

glycolysis

A catabolic pathway that breaks down glucose into pyruvate, producing energy in the forms of ATP and NADH

221

glycosidic linkage

The chemical link between simple sugars in a disaccharide or polysaccharide

222

hemiacetal

An organic compound that is formed when an alcohol combines with an aldehyde or a ketone

223

high energy molecule

A biological compound that produces a significant amount of energy when it is hydrolyzed, such as ATP

224

lactic acid fermentation

A metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down into lactate ions

225

monosaccharide

The simplest type of carbohydrate

226

polysaccharide

A carbohydrate that is built from many simple sugars linked together

227

reducing sugar

A mono- or disaccharide that contains a hemiacetal group, allowing it to be oxidized easily

228

storage polysaccharide

A polysaccharide whose primary function is a fuel source for an organism

229

structural polysaccharide

A polysaccharide whose primary function is to supply the rigid framework of an organism

230

beta oxidation

A metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids into acetyl-CoA

231

essential fatty acid

A fatty acid that humans cannot make from other nutrients and that must be present in the diet

232

fatty acid

An unbranched, long chain carboxylic acid that is used by living organisms to make fats

233

glycerophospholipids

An organic compound built from glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate ion, and one other polar or ionized substance

234

lipid

A biomolecule that is insoluble in water and is not a protein or a carbohydrate

235

monoglyceride

A biomolecule that is made from glycerol and one fatty acid; one of the products of the digestion of fats

236

oxidative phosphorylation

The sequence of metabolic reactions that oxidize NADH and FADH2 and uses the resulting energy to convert ADP into ATP

237

triglyceride

An organic molecule built from glycerol and three fatty acids; a major fuel source for many types of cells

238

reduction reaction

A reaction that adds hydrogen atoms to a molecule

239

zwitterion

An electrically neutral molecule that contains a positively ionized group and a negatively ionized group

240

primary structure of a protein

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide

241

alpha helix

A protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a tight coil

242

competitive inhibitor of an enzyme

A molecule that fits into the active site of an enzyme and prevents the normal substrate from entering

243

effector of an enzyme

A molecule or ion that binds an enzyme outside of the active site and changes the activity of an enzyme

244

polypeptide

A molecule that is built from amino acids linked by peptide bonds; a protein

245

carbohydrate

An organic compound with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

246

lipid

A biomolecule that is insoluble in water and is not a protein or a carbohydrate

247

fatty acid

An unbranched, long chain carboxylic acid that is used by living organisms to make fats

248

accuracy

How close an experimental measurement is to the true value

249

atom

The smallest particle of an element

250

atomic number

The number of protons in an atom, used to identify the element

251

electron

A subatomic particle; the negatively charged component of atoms

252

mole

An amount of a substance equal to its formula weight expressed in grams

253

valence electrons

An electron in the outermost shell of an atom

254

valence shell

The outermost shell of an atom

255

cation

A positively charged ion

256

electronegativity

A measure of the attraction of an element for electrons

257

octet rule

The tendency of atoms to have eight valence electrons when they form molecules or ions

258

dipole dipole attraction

The attraction between oppositely charged regions in two polar molecules

259

ion-ion attraction

The attraction between oppositely charged ions

260

solvent

The primary liquid component of a solution

261

law of conservation of energy

The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

262

activation of energy

The minimum energy that reactant molecules must have to react

263

electrolyte

A substance tat conducts electricity when it dissolves in water

264

specific heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1C

265

solute

One component of a solution either the component that disappears during the dissolving process or the liquid that is present in the smaller amount

266

chemical equilibrium

A stable mixture of products and reactants in which the rates of the forward reaction and reverse reaction are equal

267

heat of reaction

The amount of heat absurd or given off by a chemical reaction

268

acid

a molecule or ion that can donate a hydrogen ion to another molecule or ion

269

base

A molecule or ion that can bond to a hydrogen ion

270

conjugate pair

Two substances whose formulas differ by one hydrogen ion

271

buffer

A solution that resists pH changes when acids or bases are added to it

272

alkane

An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by single bonds

273

alkene

An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms and that contains a carbon-carbon double bond

274

alcohol

an organic compound that contains an OH group bonded to an alkyl group

275

saturated hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon that does not contain any double or triple bonds

276

VSEPR

The principle that valence electrons around an atom arrange themselves to be as far apart as possible

277

enantiomer

Mirror image forms of a compound that are not superimposable

278

Thermodynamics

The study of heat and its interconversions

279

Thermochemistry

The branch of thermodynamics that focuses on the heat involved in chemical and physical change

280

System

The defined part of the universe under study

281

Surroundings

All parts of the universe other than the system being considered

282

Internal Energy

The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energies of all the particles in a system

283

heat

The energy transformed between objects because of a difference in their temperatures only

284

work

The energy transferred when an object is moved by a force

285

law of conservation of energy

A basic observation that the total energy of the universe is constant

286

joule

The SI Unit of energy; 1J=1kg(m^2/s^2)

287

calorie

A unit of energy defined as exactly 4.184J; originally defined as the heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree Celsius

288

state function

A property of the system determined by its current state, regardless of how it arrived at that state

289

pressure-volume work

A type of work in which a volume change occurs against an external pressure

290

enthalpy

A thermodynamic quantity that is the sum of the internal energy plus the product of the pressure and volume

291

change in enthalpy

The change in internal energy plus the product of the constant pressure and the change in volume

292

exothermic process

A process that occurs with a release of heat to the surroundings and therefore a decrease in the enthalpy of the system

293

enthalpy diagram

A graphic depiction of the enthalpy change of system

294

endothermic process

A process that occurs with an absorption of heat from the surroundings and therefore an increase in the enthalpy of the system

295

heat capacity

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of an object by 1 degree Kelvin

296

specific heat capacity

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a material by 1K

297

molar heat capacity

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 mol of a substance, in units of g/mol

298

calorimeter

a device used to measure the heat released or absorbed by a physical or chemical process taking place within it

299

thermochemical equation

A chemical equation that shows the heat involved for the amounts of substances specified

300

Hess's law

A law stating that the enthalpy change of an overall process is the sum of the enthalpy changes of the individual steps

301

standard state

A set of specifications used to compare thermodynamic data: one atm for gases behaving ideally, 1M for dissolved species, or the pure substance for liquids and solids

302

standard enthalpy of reaction

The enthalpy change that occurs during a reaction when all components are in their standard states

303

formation equation

An equation in which 1 mole of a compound forms from its elements

304

standard enthalpy of formation

The enthalpy change occurring when 1mol of a compound forms from its elements with all components in their standard states

305

fossil fuel

Any fuel, including coal, petroleum, and natural gas, derived from the products of the decay of dead organisms

306

Polar molecule

A molecule with an unequal distribution of charge as a result of its polar bonds and shape.

307

solvated

Surrounded closely by solvent molecules.

308

electrolyte

a substance that conducts a current when it dissolves in water. A mixture of ions, in which the electrodes of an electrochemical cell are immersed, that conducts a current.

309

nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aquesous solution does not conduct an electric current.

310

Molecular equation

A chemical equation showing a reaction in solution in which reactants and products appear as intact, undissociated compounds.

311

total ionic equation

an equation for an aqueous reaction that shows all the soluble ionic substance dissociated into ions.

312

Spectator ion

an ion that is present as part of a reactant but is not involved in the chemical change.

313

net ionic equation

a chemical equation of a reaction in solution in which spectator ions have been eliminated to show the actual chemical change.

314

Precipitation reaction

A reaction in which two soluble ionic compounds form an insoluble product, a precipitate.

315

Precipitate

The insoluble product of a precipitation reaction

316

metathesis reaction

A reaction in which atoms or ions of two compounds exchange bonding partners.

317

acid-base reaction

Any reaction between an acid and a base

318

acid

In common Laboratory terms, any species that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water

319

base

any species that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water.

320

salt

An ionic compound that results from an Arrhenius acid-base reaction after solvent is removed

321

titration

A method of determining the concentration of a solution by monitoring relative amounts during its reaction with a solution of known concentration

322

equivalence point

the point in a titration when the number of moles of the added species is stoichiometrically equivalent to the original number of moles of the other species.

323

end point

the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color.

324

oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction

a process in which there is a net movement of electrons from one reactant to another.

325

oxidation

the loss of electrons by a species, accompanied by an increase in oxidation number.

326

reduction

the gain of electrons by a species, accompanied by a decrease in oxidation number

327

oxidizing agent

thee substance that accepts electrons in a reaction and undergoes a decrease in oxidation number

328

oxidizing number

A number equal to the magnitude of the charge an atom would have if its sheared electrons were held completely by the atom that attracts them more strongly

329

reducing agent

the substance that donate electrons in a redox reaction and undergoes an increase in oxidation number

330

activity series of the metals

a listing of metals arranged in order of decreasing strength if the metal as a reducing agent in aqueous reaction

331

hydrogen

H+

332

lithium

Li+

333

sodium

Na+

334

potassium

K+

335

cesium

Cs+

336

silver

Ag+

337

magnesium

Mg2+

338

calcium

Ca2+

339

strontium

Sr2+

340

barium

Ba2+

341

zinc

Zn2+

342

cadmium

Cd2+

343

aluminum

Al3+

344

hydride

H-

345

fluoride

F-

346

chloride

Cl-

347

bromide

Br-

348

iodide

I-

349

oxide

O2-

350

sulfide

S2-

351

nitride

N3-