Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (42)
A model that explains reaction rate as based on the number, every, and orientation of colliding particles.
An equation that expresses the exponential relationship between temperature and the rate constant.
The minimum energy with which molecules must collide to react.
A collision in which the particles meet with sufficient energy and orientation that allows them to react.
The product of the collision frequency Z and an orientation probability factor p that is specific for a reaction.
transition state theory
A model that explains how the energy of reactant collisions is used to form a high-energy transitional species that can change to reactant or product
An unstable species formed in an effective collision of reactants that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or re-form reactants
reaction energy diagram
A graph that shows the potential energy of a reacting system as it progresses from reactants to products
A series of elementary tips that sum to the overall reaction and is consistent with the rate law
A simple reaction that describes a single molecular event in proposed reaction mechanism
The number of reactant particles involved in a elementary step
An elementary reaction that involves the decomposition or rearrangement of a single particle.
An elementary reaction involving the collision of two reactant species
The slowest step in a reaction mechanism and therefore the step that limits the overall rate.
A substance that is formed and used up during the overall reaction and therefore does not appears int he overall equation
A substance or mixture that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up in the process.
A catalyst that exists in the same phase as the reactants.
A catalyst that occurs in a different phase from the reactants, usually a solid interacting with gaseous or liquid reactants.
The addition of hydrogen to a carbon-carbon multiple bond to form a carbon-carbon single bond.
A biological macromolecule that acts as a catalyst
The region of an enzyme formed by specific amino acid side chains at which catalysis occurs.
The value obtained when equilibrium concentrations are substituted into the reaction quotient.
law of chemical equilibrium
The law stating that when a system reaches equilibrium a given temperature, the ratio of quantities that make up the reaction quotient has a constant numerical value
reaction of quotient
A ratio of terms for a given reaction consisting of product concentrations multiplied together and divided by reactant concentrations multiplied together, each raised to the power of their balancing coefficient. The value of Q changes until the system reaches equilibrium, at which point it equals K.
Le Chatelier's principle
A principle stating that if a system in a stat of equilibrium is disturbed, it will undergo a change that shifts its equilibrium position in a direction that reduces the effect of the disturbance
An industrial process used to form ammonia from its elements
A proton covalently bonded to a water molecule
Arrhenius acid-base definition
A model of acid-base behavior in which an acid is a substance that has H in its formula and dissociates in water to yield H3O+, and a base is a substance that has OH in its formula and produces OH- in water
Process that occurs when an H+ ion from an acid combines with an OH- ion from a base to from H2O
An equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid in H2O to yield the conjugate base and H3O+
A reaction in which two molecules of a substance react to give ions
ion-product constant for water
The equilibrium constant for the auto ionization of water; equals to 1.00x10^-14 at 298K
The negative common logarithm of H3O+
An organic molecule whose color is different in acid and in base and is used to monitor the equivalence point of a titration or the pH of a solution
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base definition
A model of acid-base behavior baed on proton transfer in which an acid and a base are defined, respectively, as species that donate and accept a proton.
A substance that donates an H+ ion
A substance that accepts and H+ ion
conjugate acid-base pair
Two species related to each other through the gain or loss of a proton; the acid has one more proton that its conjugate base.
polypro tic acid
An acid with more than one ionized proton.
An equilibrium constant for the reaction of a base with H2O to yield the conjugate acid and OH-
Lewis acid-base definition
A model of acid-base behavior in which acids and bases are defined, respectively, as species that accept and donate an electron pair.