Final Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (40):
1

reduction reaction

A reaction that adds hydrogen atoms to a molecule

2

zwitterion

An electrically neutral molecule that contains a positively ionized group and a negatively ionized group

3

primary structure of a protein

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide

4

alpha helix

A protein structure in which the polypeptide backbone folds into a tight coil

5

competitive inhibitor of an enzyme

A molecule that fits into the active site of an enzyme and prevents the normal substrate from entering

6

effector of an enzyme

A molecule or ion that binds an enzyme outside of the active site and changes the activity of an enzyme

7

polypeptide

A molecule that is built from amino acids linked by peptide bonds; a protein

8

carbohydrate

An organic compound with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

9

lipid

A biomolecule that is insoluble in water and is not a protein or a carbohydrate

10

fatty acid

An unbranched, long chain carboxylic acid that is used by living organisms to make fats

11

accuracy

How close an experimental measurement is to the true value

12

atom

The smallest particle of an element

13

atomic number

The number of protons in an atom, used to identify the element

14

electron

A subatomic particle; the negatively charged component of atoms

15

mole

An amount of a substance equal to its formula weight expressed in grams

16

valence electrons

An electron in the outermost shell of an atom

17

valence shell

The outermost shell of an atom

18

cation

A positively charged ion

19

electronegativity

A measure of the attraction of an element for electrons

20

octet rule

The tendency of atoms to have eight valence electrons when they form molecules or ions

21

dipole dipole attraction

The attraction between oppositely charged regions in two polar molecules

22

ion-ion attraction

The attraction between oppositely charged ions

23

solvent

The primary liquid component of a solution

24

law of conservation of energy

The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

25

activation of energy

The minimum energy that reactant molecules must have to react

26

electrolyte

A substance tat conducts electricity when it dissolves in water

27

specific heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1C

28

solute

One component of a solution either the component that disappears during the dissolving process or the liquid that is present in the smaller amount

29

chemical equilibrium

A stable mixture of products and reactants in which the rates of the forward reaction and reverse reaction are equal

30

heat of reaction

The amount of heat absurd or given off by a chemical reaction

31

acid

a molecule or ion that can donate a hydrogen ion to another molecule or ion

32

base

A molecule or ion that can bond to a hydrogen ion

33

conjugate pair

Two substances whose formulas differ by one hydrogen ion

34

buffer

A solution that resists pH changes when acids or bases are added to it

35

alkane

An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by single bonds

36

alkene

An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms and that contains a carbon-carbon double bond

37

alcohol

an organic compound that contains an OH group bonded to an alkyl group

38

saturated hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon that does not contain any double or triple bonds

39

VSEPR

The principle that valence electrons around an atom arrange themselves to be as far apart as possible

40

enantiomer

Mirror image forms of a compound that are not superimposable