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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (24):
1

pressure

The force exerted per unit of surface area

2

barometer

A device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Most commonly, a tube open at one end, which is filled with mercury and inverted into a dish of mercury

3

pascal

The SI unit of pressure; 1Pa=1N/m^2

4

standard atmosphere

The average atmosphere pressure measured at sea level and 0C, defined as 1.01325x10^5 Pa

5

millimeter of mercury(torr)

A unit of pressure based on the difference in the heights of mercury in a barometer or manometer.

6

torr

A unit of pressure identical to 1 mmHg

7

ideal gas

A hypothetical gas that exhibits linear relationships among volume, pressure, temperature, and amount (mol) at all conditions; approximated by simple gases at ordinary conditions.

8

boyle's law

The gas law stating that, at constant temperature and amount of gas, the volume occupied by a gas is inversely proportional to the applied (external) pressure.

9

charles's law

The gas law stating that at constant pressure, the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

10

Avogadro's law

The gas law stating that, at fixed temperature and pressure, equal volumes of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles, and , therefore, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its amount

11

standard temperature and pressure

The reference conditions for a gas

12

standard molar volume

The volume of 1 mol of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure: 22.4141L

13

ideal gas law

An equation that expresses the relationships among volume, pressure, temperature, and amount (mol) of an ideal gas: PV=nRT

14

universal gas constant

A proportionality constant that relates the energy, amount of substance, and temperature of a system

15

partial pressure

The portion of the total pressure contributed by a gas in a mixture of gases

16

Dalton's law of partial pressures

A gas law stating that, in a mixture of unreacting gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases

17

mole fraction

A concentration term expressed as the ratio of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles present

18

kinetic-molecular theory

the model that explains gas behavior in terms of particles in random motion whose volumes and interactions are negligible

19

rms speed

The speed of a molecule having the average kinetic energy; very close to the most probable speed

20

effusion

The process by which a gas escapes from its container through a tiny hole into an evacuated space

21

Graham's law of effusion

A gas law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas inversely proportional to the square root of its density

22

diffusion

the movement of one fluid through another

23

van der Waals equation

an equation that accounts for the behavior of real gasses

24

van der Waals constants

Experimentally determined positive numbers used in the van der Waals equation to account for the intermolecular attractions and molecular volume of real gasses