Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (24)

1

## pressure

### The force exerted per unit of surface area

2

## barometer

### A device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Most commonly, a tube open at one end, which is filled with mercury and inverted into a dish of mercury

3

## pascal

### The SI unit of pressure; 1Pa=1N/m^2

4

## standard atmosphere

### The average atmosphere pressure measured at sea level and 0C, defined as 1.01325x10^5 Pa

5

## millimeter of mercury(torr)

### A unit of pressure based on the difference in the heights of mercury in a barometer or manometer.

6

## torr

### A unit of pressure identical to 1 mmHg

7

## ideal gas

### A hypothetical gas that exhibits linear relationships among volume, pressure, temperature, and amount (mol) at all conditions; approximated by simple gases at ordinary conditions.

8

## boyle's law

### The gas law stating that, at constant temperature and amount of gas, the volume occupied by a gas is inversely proportional to the applied (external) pressure.

9

## charles's law

### The gas law stating that at constant pressure, the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature

10

## Avogadro's law

### The gas law stating that, at fixed temperature and pressure, equal volumes of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles, and , therefore, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its amount

11

## standard temperature and pressure

### The reference conditions for a gas

12

## standard molar volume

### The volume of 1 mol of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure: 22.4141L

13

## ideal gas law

### An equation that expresses the relationships among volume, pressure, temperature, and amount (mol) of an ideal gas: PV=nRT

14

## universal gas constant

### A proportionality constant that relates the energy, amount of substance, and temperature of a system

15

## partial pressure

### The portion of the total pressure contributed by a gas in a mixture of gases

16

## Dalton's law of partial pressures

### A gas law stating that, in a mixture of unreacting gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases

17

## mole fraction

### A concentration term expressed as the ratio of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles present

18

## kinetic-molecular theory

### the model that explains gas behavior in terms of particles in random motion whose volumes and interactions are negligible

19

## rms speed

### The speed of a molecule having the average kinetic energy; very close to the most probable speed

20

## effusion

### The process by which a gas escapes from its container through a tiny hole into an evacuated space

21

## Graham's law of effusion

### A gas law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas inversely proportional to the square root of its density

22

## diffusion

### the movement of one fluid through another

23

## van der Waals equation

### an equation that accounts for the behavior of real gasses

24