Chapter 4 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab Deck (25):
1

Polar molecule

A molecule with an unequal distribution of charge as a result of its polar bonds and shape.

2

solvated

Surrounded closely by solvent molecules.

3

electrolyte

a substance that conducts a current when it dissolves in water. A mixture of ions, in which the electrodes of an electrochemical cell are immersed, that conducts a current.

4

nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aquesous solution does not conduct an electric current.

5

Molecular equation

A chemical equation showing a reaction in solution in which reactants and products appear as intact, undissociated compounds.

6

total ionic equation

an equation for an aqueous reaction that shows all the soluble ionic substance dissociated into ions.

7

Spectator ion

an ion that is present as part of a reactant but is not involved in the chemical change.

8

net ionic equation

a chemical equation of a reaction in solution in which spectator ions have been eliminated to show the actual chemical change.

9

Precipitation reaction

A reaction in which two soluble ionic compounds form an insoluble product, a precipitate.

10

Precipitate

The insoluble product of a precipitation reaction

11

metathesis reaction

A reaction in which atoms or ions of two compounds exchange bonding partners.

12

acid-base reaction

Any reaction between an acid and a base

13

acid

In common Laboratory terms, any species that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water

14

base

any species that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water.

15

salt

An ionic compound that results from an Arrhenius acid-base reaction after solvent is removed

16

titration

A method of determining the concentration of a solution by monitoring relative amounts during its reaction with a solution of known concentration

17

equivalence point

the point in a titration when the number of moles of the added species is stoichiometrically equivalent to the original number of moles of the other species.

18

end point

the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color.

19

oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction

a process in which there is a net movement of electrons from one reactant to another.

20

oxidation

the loss of electrons by a species, accompanied by an increase in oxidation number.

21

reduction

the gain of electrons by a species, accompanied by a decrease in oxidation number

22

oxidizing agent

thee substance that accepts electrons in a reaction and undergoes a decrease in oxidation number

23

oxidizing number

A number equal to the magnitude of the charge an atom would have if its sheared electrons were held completely by the atom that attracts them more strongly

24

reducing agent

the substance that donate electrons in a redox reaction and undergoes an increase in oxidation number

25

activity series of the metals

a listing of metals arranged in order of decreasing strength if the metal as a reducing agent in aqueous reaction