Chapter 12 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Chapter 12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (27):
1

phase

A physically distinct and homogeneous part of a system

2

intermolecular forces

The attractive and repulsive forces among the particles- molecules, atoms, or ions- in a sample of matter.

3

phase change

A physical change from one phase to another, usually referring to a change in physical state

4

condensation

The process of a gas changing into a liquid

5

vaporization

The process of changing from a liquid to a gas

6

freezing

The process of cooling a liquid until it solidifies

7

melting(fusion)

The change of a substance from a solid to a liquid

8

sublimation

The process by which a solid changes directly into a gas

9

deposition

The process of changing directly from gas to solid

10

heat of vaporization

The enthalpy change occurring when 1 mol of a liquid substance vaporizes.

11

heat of fusion

The enthalpy change occurring when 1mol of a solid substance melts

12

heat of sublimation

The enthalpy changes occurring when of a solid substance changes directly to a gas.

13

heating-cooling curve

A plot of temperature vs. time for a substance when heat is absorbed or released by the system at a constant rate

14

dynamic equilibrium

The condition at which the forward and reverse relations are taking place at the same rate, so there is no net change in the amounts of reactants or products

15

vapor pressure

The pressure exerted by a vapor at equilibrium with its liquid in a closed system

16

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

An equation that expresses the linear relationship between vapor pressure P of a liquid and temperature T.

17

boiling point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a gas equals the external pressure

18

melting point

The temperature at which the solid and liquid forms of a substance are at equilibrium

19

phase diagram

A diagram used to describe that stale phases and phase changes of a substance as a function of temperature and pressure

20

triple point

The pressure and temperature at which three phases of a substance are in equilibrium. In a phase diagram, the point at which three phase-transition curves meet.

21

critical point

The point on a phases diagram above which the vapor cannot be condensed to a liquid; the end of the liquid-gas curve

22

van der Waals radius

One-half of the shortest distance between the nuclei of identical non bonded atoms

23

ion-dipole force

The intermolecular attractive force between an ion and a polar molecule.

24

dipole-dipole force

The intermolecular attraction between oppositely charged poles of nearby polar molecules

25

hydrogen bond

A type of dipole-dipole force that arises between molecules that have an H atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with lone pairs, usually N,O, or F.

26

polarizability

The ease with which a particle's electron cloud can be distorted

27

dispersion force

The intermolecular attraction between all particles as a result of instantaneous polarizations of their electron clouds; the intermolecular force primarily responsible fro the condensed states of non polar substances