Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (19):
1

Valence bond theory

A model that attempts to reconcile the shapes of molecules with those of atomic orbitals through the concepts of orbital overlap and hybridization

2

hybridization

A postulated process of orbital mixing to form hybrid orbitals

3

hybrid orbital

An atomic orbital postulated to form during bonding by the mathematical mixing of specific combinations of non-equivalent orbitals in a given atom

4

sp hybrid orbital

An orbital formed by the mixing of one s and one p orbital of a central atom

5

sp2 hybrid orbital

An orbital formed by the mixing of one s and two p orbitals of a central atom

6

sp3 hybrid orbital

An orbital formed by the mixing of one s and three p orbitals of a central atom

7

sp3d hybrid orbital

An orbital forms by the mixing of one s, three p, and one d orbitals of a central atom

8

sp3d2 hybrid orbital

An orbital formed by the mixing of one s, three p, and two d orbitals of a central atom

9

sigma bond

A type of covalent bond that arises through end-to-end orbital overlap and has most of its electron density along an imaginary line joining the nuclei.

10

pi bond

A covalent bond formed by sideways overlap of two atomic orbitals that has two regions of electron density, one above and one below the internuclear axis

11

molecular orbital theory

A model that describes a molecule as a collection of nuclei and electrons in which the electrons occupy orbitals that extend over the entire molecule

12

molecular orbital

An orbital of given energy and shape that extends over a molecule and can be occupied by no more than two paired electrons

13

bonding MO

A molecular orbital formed when wave functions are added to each other, which increases electron density between the nuclei. Electrons occupying such an orbital stabilize the molecule

14

anti bonding MO

A molecular orbital formed when wave functions are subtracted from each other, which decreases electron density between the nuclei and leaves a node. Electrons occupying such an orbital destabilize the molecule

15

sigma MO

A molecular orbital that is cylindrically symmetrical about an imaginary line that runs through the nuclei of the component atoms

16

molecular orbital diagram

A depiction of the relative energy and number of electrons in each MO, as well as the atomic orbitals from which the MOs form

17

MO bond order

One-half the difference between the number of electrons in bonding and anti bonding Mos

18

homonuclear diatomic molecule

A molecule composed of two identical atoms

19

pi MO

A molecular orbital formed by combination of two atomic orbitals whose orientations are perpendicular to the internuclear axis