to withdraw one's support or help from, especially in spite of duty, allegiance, or responsibility.
placing somebody into a position where he or she reasonably fears that battery will occur.
the act of touching someone without his or her consent.
breach of duty
the failure to perform a promised act or obligation of due care.
Charles Minot "Minnie" Dole
the founder and creator of the National Ski Patrol.
the nondisclosure of personal information except to an authorized person with the need to know.
to give permission or approval to something proposed or requested.
doctrine of public reliance
when the general public has been given a reasonable expectation that an OEC Technician has the ability and duty to provide first-aid services.
duty to act
a person's legal obligation to provide something to another individual.
Emergency Medical Responder (EMR)
any trained individual who is first to respond on scene at a medical emergency; renders immediate care to the patient and continues care until care is assumed by a person with higher medical training.
the science (study) of morality or behavior that defines what is "good" or "right."
consent given when a competent injured person gives permission to provide first aid treatment and transportation.
Good Samaritan laws
laws that protect a person from legal liability when the person volunteers to perform an act to help someone else.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
a law that addresses the confidentiality of the electronic transmission of medical records; applies to medical personnel who are compensated for service.
a form of consent that is not expressly granted by a person, but instead is inferred from a person's actions and the facts and circumstances of a particular situation.
consent a person gives based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and possible future consequences of an action.
consent a parent or legal guardian gives for the treatment of a minor because legally the minor is not competent to give consent to medical treatment; the ability to provide such consent varies among states.
National Medical Advisor
a licensed physician, MD, or DO with an interest in outdoor/wilderness medicine and ski patrolling, who is appointed by the National Ski Patrol's chairman and approved by the National Ski Patrol's board of directors to serve the NSP in all matters of medical concern; chairs the National Medical Committee.
National Medical Committee
a group of physicians that includes one doctor from each division of the National Ski Patrol, the National OEC Program Director and other physicians selected at large, and the National Medical Advisor.
National OEC Program Committee
a committee composed of all Division OEC Supervisors and the National Medical Advisor, and chaired by the National OEC Program Director; provides insight and guidance to the Board of Directors annually on matters related to the functioning of the OEC program.
National OEC Program Director
a National Ski Patrol member who is an active specialist in the field of outdoor medicine; is appointed by the NSP chairman and confirmed by the NSP board of directors; is responsible to the board for the effective management and operation of the national OEC program. This individual also chairs the national OEC Program Committee and serves as a member of the National Education Committee and the National Medical Committee.
National OEC Refresher Committee
committee appointed and supervised by the National OEC Program Director; is responsible for developing the annual OEC Refresher program.
National Ski Patrol System, Inc. (NSP)
the largest winter rescue group in the world, as recognized by the United States Congress under Title 36 of the United States Code; is the premier snow sports rescue organization in the United States.
the failure to exercise the care that a reasonably prudent person with similar training would exercise in a similar circumstance.
Outdoor Emergency Care (OEC)
a course of medical instruction developed and taught by National Ski Patrol.
any medical care rendered by trained personnel prior to arrival at a hospital.
annual required continuing education training, usually given each year in the fall, that covers one-third of topics taught in the OEC curriculum.
a simulated problem that mimics a real-life medical situation.
standard of care
a level of care an OEC Technician must render based on OEC training, local medical protocols, and the requirements of a state's emergency medical system.
standard of training
the training of National Ski Patrol OEC Technicians as set forth in the OEC course, using this text as a reference.
Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (AEMT)
an intermediate-level technician who has successfully completed an NHTSA-approved Advanced EMT course or its equivalent and is authorized to provide both basic and intermediate life support.
emergency care system
a network of specially trained personnel, equipment, facilities, and other resources that respond to medical emergencies. See EMS.
emergency medical dispatcher (EMD)
a person who has been trained to provide emergency medical advice and instructions over the telephone.
Emergency Medical Responder (EMR)
a person who is specially trained to provide medical care to patients in prehospital settings. There are many types of EMRs, each with various training requirements and scopes of practice.
emergency medical services (EMS)
a network of services, including rescue operations, prehospital emergency care, ambulance transportation, emergency department services, and public education, for treating victims of illness or injury. See emergency care system.
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
a basic-level technician who has successfully completed an NHTSA-approved EMT course or its equivalent and is authorized to provide basic life support.
a physician who is responsible for ensuring and evaluating the appropriate level and quality of care throughout an emergency care system. Also referred to as a medical advisor or physician supervisor.
the process by which a physician monitors the quality of medical care rendered to patients and provides assistance and guidance to prehospital providers and emergency care systems.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, part of the Department of Transportation, whose mission is "Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes."
Outdoor Emergency Care (OEC) Technician
a provider who has successfully completed the NSP's OEC course and has kept his annual refresher requirement current. CPR training, including AED training, are required of this individual.
Outdoor First Care (OFC) Provider
a person who has completed the NSP's Outdoor First Care course and is trained to render basic first aid in outdoor, nonurban environments.
an allied health care professional who has successfully completed an NHTSA-approved paramedic course or its equivalent and is trained to deliver both basic and advanced life support.
a person who is specially trained to render medical care to a patient outside of a hospital or medical care facility.
written procedures for assessing, treating, and transporting a patient. Protocols are generally written by a team of emergency care professionals and managed by a medical director.
"Scope of Practice"
a set of rules, regulations, and ethical considerations that define the extent, boundaries, and limitations of a prehospital provider's duties.
body substance isolation (BSI)
the practice of isolating all bodily substances (blood, urine, tears, feces, and so on) of patients from rescuers in order to decrease disease transmission.
a form of heat exchange in which heat transfers from a warmer object to a cooler object through direct contact.
soiling of an object, water, or air by foreign material such as dirt, debris, bodily fluids, or radiation.
a form of heat exchange that occurs when a gas or a liquid moves past the surface of an object.
the process of rendering an object, person, or area free of harmful substances such as bacteria, poison, gas, and radiation.
a form of heat exchange that occurs when a liquid converts to a gas.
hazardous materials (HazMat)
substances that have the potential to harm people, animals, or the environment.
the body's ability to regulate its inner environment to ensure stability and to respond to changes in the outside environment.
the state of being protected from a disease, especially an infectious disease.
material safety data sheet (MSDS)
a form that contains relevant information pertaining to a specific substance, with a focus on the hazards it poses to workers.
the chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life.
the body's process of utilizing food substances needed for growth and the maintenance of life.
an event in which a worker comes into contact with a bodily fluid or hazardous material while on the job.
an infectious agent that can cause disease or illness.
personal protective equipment (PPE)
items worn by medical providers, including gloves, mask, safety eyeglasses (or mask with shield), and gown, to protect them from bodily fluids.
a form of heat exchange in which energy is transmitted in waves (electromagnetic, ultraviolet, infrared) through space.
the process of assessing the site of an accident or disaster and making it safe for rescuers to enter.
the first step of the assessment process, consisting of four components: scene safety, mechanism of injury, total number of patients involved, and the need for additional resources.
the practice of protecting health care workers from exposure to bodily fluids based on the assumption that all patients are potentially infectious.
waves of solar energy that are beneficial in small amounts but harmful to the skin and eyes upon overexposure.