unequal size of the pupils.
an injury caused by direct trauma to the eye or face that fractures the bony eye socket; can entrap the muscles that enable normal eye movement.
the clear but highly sensitive surface of the eye that refracts light entering into the visual system.
external auditory canal
the passageway through the outer ear that ends at the tympanic membrane.
blood in the anterior chamber of the eye.
glands that produce tears, which irrigate the surface of the eye.
the jaw bone.
the bone of the mid-face; the cheek bone.
the bony socket of the eyeball.
separation of the retina from the inside of the posterior wall of the eyeball.
the powerful muscle at the sides of the neck that facilitate turning of the head.
air-filled bubbles that are palpable underneath the skin; indicates an injury to an airway structure.
ballooning of an artery that weakens it and predisposes it to rupture.
closed chest injury
a chest injury without penetration of the chest cavity.
sudden cardiac death due to blunt thoracic trauma without any observable thoracic or cardiac damage.
a condition in which two or more adjacent ribs are fractured in two or more places, causing a free-floating segment of the chest wall.
coughing up blood.
an accumulation of blood in the pleural space.
a bruise of the heart muscle.
open chest injury
a chest injury that involves penetration of the chest wall.
inward movement of a flail chest segment upon inhalation.
the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac.
air in the pleural space.
a bruise of the lung tissue.
the difference between the maximum (systolic) and minimum (diastolic) blood pressures during a single heartbeat.
sucking chest wound
a chest wound that penetrates the pleura or lung, allowing air to be "sucked" into the pleural space upon each inspiration.
the accumulation of pressurized air within the pleural space; causes the displacement of the great vessels, tracheal deviation, distention of the jugular veins, and compression of the other lung.
the inability to breathe and hypoxia that results from the inability of the chest wall to expand due to external pressure or massive crushing trauma.
a biological material (antibodies) administered to a patient to counteract exposure to a specific kind of venom; is produced by injecting the venom into an animal and then harvesting the antibodies that the animal makes against the venom.
large blisters containing clear or bloody fluid.
poisonous effects caused by bites or stings.
death of tissue.
a temporary eruption on the skin.
arterial gas embolism (AGE)
a condition that occurs immediately after rapid ascent in which air bubbles enter the bloodstream from a ruptured alveolus and lodge in an artery.
trauma that is caused by differences in pressure between the body and the environment.
formation of nitrogen bubbles in tissues from a too-rapid ascent.
suffocation by submersion in water.
spasm of the vocal cords that prevents air movement through the respiratory tract.
mammalian diving reflex
a reflexive response to diving in many mammals that is characterized by physiological changes that decrease oxygen consumption (including slowed heart rate and decreased blood flow to the abdominal organs and muscles) until breathing resumes.
survival for at least 24 hours after being suffocated by submersion in water.
the pressure of a single gas within a mixture of gases; the partial pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is equal to the pressure that gas would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature.
a property of solutions that relates to the concentration of solutes (such as salt) it contains, and how the water in a solution moves across a cell membrane; water in a solution crosses a cell membrane from the side that has the lower tonicity (a hypotonic solution) to the side that has the higher tonicity (a hypertonic solution); pure water is hypotonic to the solution within cells because that solution contains salts.