accessory muscles of respiration
various muscles of the neck, chest, and abdomen that may become active when depth of respiration must be significantly increased.
acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing death of heart muscle. Also known as a heart attack.
advanced life support (ALS)
a level of EMS care for which providers are trained and authorized to insert advanced airway devices, initiate intravenous lines, and give medications.
a condition in which an airway is open and unobstructed.
tiny air sacs within the lungs; the sites at which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between inhaled air and the bloodstream.
sudden chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; also called angina.
a condition characterized by the lack of an oxygen supply.
the large muscular artery that originates at the heart and serves as the main trunk of the arterial system.
an abnormal dilation, bulging, or ballooning of the aorta.
abnormal heart rhythm.
absence of a heartbeat due to lack of cardiac electrical activity.
a form of arteriosclerosis in which cholesterol and lipid plaques form within the walls of arteries.
automated external defibrillator (AED)
a medical device used to deliver an electrical shock to a patient in an effort to restore an effective heart rhythm.
automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD)
an implantable defibrillator that recognizes common lethal heart rhythms and then delivers an electrical shock to the heart to restore an effective heart rhythm.
basic life support (BLS)
a basic level of EMS care for which providers are trained and authorized to provide basic interventions, including noninvasive airway devices, application of oxygen, CPR, and basic first aid.
a decreased respiration rate; in adults, less than 10 rpm.
the noises produced by the pulmonary structures during respiration.
the involuntary contraction of the bronchioles.
cessation of a functional heartbeat.
a condition whereby body tissues are oxygen deprived due to the heart's inability to adequately pump blood; may follow a large acute myocardial infarction.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
a procedure to revive a patient who is pulseless and not breathing.
the restoration of a normal rhythm of the heart by electrical shock.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a condition in which the airways and alveoli become damaged, typically by long-term smoke exposure; its two most important forms are chronic bronchitis and chronic emphysema.
congestive heart failure
failure of the heart to efficiently pump blood to body tissues.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
an operation that uses grafts of healthy blood vessels to bypass diseased arteries that supply the heart tissue.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
a "crackling" feel of the skin of the chest that is detected by palpation; is caused by the presence of air trapped beneath the skin.
difficult or labored breathing accompanied by feeling short of breath.
abnormal buildup of fluid in body tissues.
a blood clot, fat, or other solid material in the venous system that breaks loose and is carried in the bloodstream, lodging in another site in the body.
hypertension abnormally high blood pressure.
formation of an area of dead tissue due to inadequate blood flow.
a deficiency in blood supply (and thus a deficiency of nutrients) to a tissue; if prolonged, may result in infarction.
heart muscle tissue.
a device that substitutes for the pace-making tissue of the heart; can be surgically implanted.
the delivery of oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to tissues.
inflammation of the pericardium or sac surrounding the heart, causing chest pain.
the thin transparent membrane covering the outside of the lungs and the inside of the chest wall.
the potential space that lies within the pleura covering the outside of the lungs and the inside of the chest wall.
an abnormal collection of air within the pleural space.
a condition in which a clot or other obstruction (an embolus) partially or completely blocks a pulmonary artery.
a clot in the blood.
the process by which air moves into and out of the lungs, so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
chaotic and ineffective contraction of the ventricles that leads to cardiac arrest.
rapid contraction of the ventricles that can lead to ineffective blood flow to body tissues and eventually cardiac arrest.
a high-pitched respiratory sound caused by a narrowing of the tubular airways.