Terms 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Terms 20 Deck (46):
1

jams and pretzels

a phrase that refers to the process by which someone who is injured and an awkward position is returned to normal supine anatomical position while maintaining spinal alignment.

1

abduction

to move away from the midline of the body.

2

acromioclavicular (A/C) joint

joint of the shoulder in which the acromion (top of the scapula) and the clavicle articulate.

3

adduction

to move toward the midline of the body.

4

angulation

a sharp bend in a broken bone; a broken bone that is visibly crooked.

5

appendicular skeleton

the periphery of the skeleton; the bones of the arms and legs.

6

articular cartilage

the cartilage that is affixed to the end of a bone within a joint.

7

articulation

the site at which the ends of two or more bones come together to form a joint.

8

axial

pertaining to the axis of a body part.

9

axial skeleton

the central core of the bony skeleton, consisting of the skull, spine, and supporting thoracic bones.

10

bone crepitus

a noise or palpable feeling of crackling when fractured bone ends rub together.

11

callus

material at a fracture site that forms from a hematoma and later becomes bone.

12

cardiac muscle

specialized muscle of the heart that contracts regularly without stopping.

13

cartilage

a tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue found in various parts of the body, including the joints, outer ear, and end of the nose.

14

cortex

the hard outer layer of a bone.

15

dislocation

a separation or displacement of the bones of a joint.

16

dorsal

toward the back of the body or of a body part.

17

dorsiflex

to move a part of the body dorsally (toward the back).

18

fracture

a break in a bone's cortex.

19

immobilization

the process of holding an object in place, as for a fracture by a cast or internal orthopedic hardware.

20

joint

a site at which two or more bones meet.

21

joint capsule

a sheet of fibrous connective tissue enclosing a synovial joint.

22

ligament

tissue that connects a bone to another bone; connective tissue that provides structure for a joint.

23

meniscus

a specialized cartilage found in some joints; such as the knee and the acromioclavicular (A/C) joint.

24

musculosketetal system (MS)

the combination of the bony skeleton, the voluntary muscles, and other supporting structures that gives the body form and enables movement.

25

palmar

on the palm side of the hand.

26

periosteum

the thin outer covering of a bone.

27

plantarflex

movement of the foot or toes downward, toward the sole of the foot.

28

popliteal fossa

posterior part of the knee.

29

skeletal muscle

type of muscle that attaches to the bony skeleton and is controlled voluntarily by the nervous system; functions to move joints to perform physical activities.

30

sling and swathe

a soft splint used to immobilize many upper extremity injuries.

31

smooth muscle

type of muscle found in organs of the body; is controlled by the autonomic nervous system; functions to push food through the intestine, contract blood vessels, and regulate other internal functions.

32

splint

a mechanical device used to prevent a part of the body from moving, protecting it from further injury.

33

sprain

a stretched or torn ligament.

34

stabilized extrication

keeping a patient's spine anatomically aligned during removal from an accident, therefore preventing any neurologic damage.

35

strain

a stretched or torn muscle or tendon.

36

subluxation

an event in which a joint dislocates partially and returns to its normal anatomical position.

37

synovium

the inner layer of the joint capsule whose cells make a viscous fluid that lubricates joints.

38

tendon

the non-contractile continuation of a muscle that gives it a mechanical advantage.

39

tension

the amount of force necessary to stretch something; when used to refer to aligning a fractured long bone, the force required to straighten out the affected limb (usually 7-8 pounds).

40

traction

the amount of force required to straighten a limb and keep it in alignment; for a fractured femur, typically 10 percent of the patient's body weight, or approximately 15 pounds.

41

traction splint

a splint used on a lower extremity to align a fracture, such as a mid-shaft fracture of the femur.

42

valgus

lateral (outward) angulation of a bone or joint (away from the midline).

43

varus

medial (inward) angulation of a bone or joint (toward the midline).

44

volar

on the front of the body.

45

zone of injury

the area that is close to or surrounding an injury of an extremity, such as a sprain or fracture.