an individual, ages 13-18 years; focus shifts from parents to peers; decision making, abstract thinking, and complex memorization skills develop.
any act or failure to act on the part of a parent, a caregiver, or any adult that results in serious physical or emotional harm or imminent risk of harm to a child.
a failure to act on the part of a parent, a caregiver, or other responsible adult to provide for the physical, emotional, educational, safety, or social needs of a child to the extent that emotional, developmental, or physical harm may occur.
shock that results from the body's inability to compensate for low blood volume or inadequate tissue perfusion.
an inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis, the small, leaf-shaped structure that covers the larynx when a person swallows and prevents food from entering the trachea.
an unfused suture between the bones of the skull of a newborn that allows expansion of the growing brain; the fontanels close at approximately 18-20 months of age.
a child ages 2-12 months.
an inflammation of the membranes covering the spinal cord and brain; may be caused by viruses or bacteria.
a child in the first month of life; children in this stage are also said to be in the neonatal period.
pediatric assessment triangle
an assessment tool that utilizes a pediatric patient's appearance (mental status, body position, and muscle tone), work of breathing (visible movement, effort, and audible sounds), and circulation (skin color) to assess the patient's well-being.
the period of childhood during ages 3-5 years; a time in which a child gains fine motor skills and greater independence.
the condition in which muscles pull in between the ribs and above the sternum upon inhalation.
a child, ages 6-12 years.
shaken baby syndrome
a condition in which an infant or toddler is picked up and violently shaken, causing a traumatic brain injury.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the sudden, unexplained death of an infant in which a postmortem examination fails to determine the cause of death.
a child ages 12-36 months; the stage at which a child begins to explore, climb, and speak simple words or phrases.
a position in which a patient sits upright and leans forward onto outstretched arms; the head and chin are thrust forward in an attempt to keep the airway open.
an agent that causes expansion of the air passages within the lungs.
pertaining to elderly persons or to the aging process.
the capacity of cardiac muscle cells to shorten in response to a suitable stimulus.
abnormally increased dorsal curvature of the thoracic spine.
abnormally increased anterior curvature of the spine (usually the lumbar spine).
the smallest functional unit of the kidney.
a disease process that leads to a reduction in bone mass.
the simultaneous use of several medications in combination.
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
a transient loss of responsiveness resulting from inadequate cerebral blood flow.
the maximum amount of air that can be expired following a maximum inhalation.
a person with a physical or intellectual disability who participates in a sport.
modified sport gear that helps its user overcome a functional impairment.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
legislation passed in 1990 designed to prevent discrimination against individuals with disabilities.
athetoid cerebral palsy
a form of CP that causes slow, writhing muscle contractions.
attention deficit disorder (ADD)
a behavioral syndrome that causes short attention span, impulsive behavior, and restlessness.
autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
developmental disabilities that impair communication with others.
autonomic dysreflexia (AD)
abnormal function of the nervous system associated with spinal cord injuries; can lead to dangerously high blood pressure.
a sit-ski with two skis attached to the bottom of the device.
the seat of a sit-ski, which may have one or two skis mounted to the base of the seat.
cerebral palsy (CP)
a brain injury before, during, or shortly following birth that results in a non-progressive, non-contagious muscular motor disorder.
an impairment of brain function that limits the ability to process information.
any condition that impairs normal function or daily activity.
Down syndrome (DS)
a genetic disability that causes intellectual impairment and physical anomalies.
an impairment of information processing that makes learning new information difficult.
dystonic cerebral palsy
a form of CP associated with extreme muscle rigidity.
the inability to express speech normally.
a skier with two legs (one or both of which may be a prosthetic) who also uses two outriggers.
any condition that impairs normal physical or intellectual function.
any loss or limitation of physical or intellectual function.
any condition that impairs normal information processing.
a sit-ski with one ski attached to the bottom of the device.
multiple sclerosis (MS)
a progressive neurologic syndrome that causes weakness, paralysis of the extremities, and visual deficits.
muscular dystrophy (MD)
a syndrome characterized by progressive muscle degeneration.
a bag for collecting urine or feces that attaches to the body with adhesive tape.
short skis mounted on crutch-type ski poles that provide better balance for a disabled skier.
people who do not have use of their legs.
an artificial body part that substitutes for a missing human body part.
people who have lost function in all four extremities are called quadriplegics.
a device in which a bucket used for sitting is attached to a snowboard.
a device consisting of two basic components: a "bucket" or seat on which the adaptive athlete sits, and one or two skis attached to the bucket.
a device that attaches near the tips of each ski to hold the skis apart so the tips cannot cross.
a flat board, 12 inches by 36 inches, made of smooth wood or plastic, used to transfer someone to or from a wheelchair.
spastic cerebral palsy
a form of CP that causes constant, involuntary muscle contractions.
spina bifida (SB)
a congenital malformation that results in gaps within the bony spine that expose the spinal cord to injury.
spinal cord injury (SCI)
damage to the spinal cord due to trauma.
a surgical port created in the body.
a strap (or pair of straps) that is attached to an adaptive skier's waist or to a sit-ski to guide the skier and prevent excessive speed.
a skier with one leg who uses one ski and outriggers on both arms.
two track skiing
the use of two skis only by an adaptive skier; can include the use of adaptive equipment such as tethers and ski bras.
a range of visual disabilities that include legal blindness, partial sightedness, and complete blindness.