Chapter 10 - Body Organs and Parts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Body Organs and Parts Deck (28):
1

nucleus

cell nucleus; a spheroid body within a cell, consisting of a thing nuclear membrane and genes or chromosomes

2

chromosomes

thread-like structures in the cell nucleus that control growth, repair, and reproduction of the body

3

cytoplasm

the protoplasm of a cell exclusive of that of the nucleus (nucleoplasm)

4

cell membrane

a thin layer of tissue, serving as the wall of a cell. selectively allows substances to pass in and out of the cell. refuses passage to others

5

epithelial tissue

the skin and lining surfaces that protect, absorb, and excrete

6

connective tissue

the fibrous tissues of the body; that which binds together and is the ground substance of the various parts and organs of the body; examples are bones, tendons, and so on

7

muscle tissue

tissue that contracts; consists of striated (striped), cardic, and smooth muscle

8

nerve tissue

a collection of nerve fibers that conduct impulses that control and coordinate body activities

9

integumentary system

skin serves as the external covering of the body. accessory organs of this system are nails, hair, and oil and sweat glands

10

musculoskeletal system

skeletan and muscles: the 206 bones, the joints, cartilage, ligaments, and all of the muscles of the body

11

cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels; blood pumped and circulated through the body

12

gastrointestinal system

a long tube commonly called the GI tract: consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. accessory organs are pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and salivary glands

13

respiratory system

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. furnishes oxygen, removes carbon dioxide (respiration)

14

genitorurinary system

reproductive and urinary organs; also called urogenital system (GU or UG). the urinary organs are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. the reproductive organs are the gonads and various external genitalia and internal organs

15

endocrine system

glands and other structures that make hormones and release them directly into the circulatory system; ductless glands

16

nervous system

brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS); the autonomic nervous system (ANS), or peripheral nervous system, consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

17

pleural cavity

the thoracic cavity containing the lungs, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland

18

mediastinum

the mass of tissues and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the hearts and its large vessels

19

peritoneal cavity

the space containing the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder

20

cranial cavity

space enclosed by skull bones, containing the brain

21

spinal cavity

cavity containing the spinal cord

22

diaphragm

dome-shaped muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

23

sagittal

a sagittal place divides the body into right and left portions

24

midsagittal

a plane that vertically divides the body, or some part of it, into equal right and left portions (medial)

25

coronal

also called frontal; a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections (front and back)

26

transverse

a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior sections (top and bottom)

27

metabolism

sum of the body's physical and chemical processes that convert food into elements for body growth, energy, building body parts (anabolism), and degrading body substances for recycling or excretion (catabolism)

28

homeostasis

a steady state; the tendency of stability in the normal physiologic systems of the organism to maintain a balance optimal for survival. body temperature, osmotic pressure, normal cell division rate, and nutrient supply to cells are a few examples