Chapter 16 - Genitourinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Genitourinary System Deck (172):
1

Bowman's capsule (renal capsule)

cup-shaped end of renal tubule containing the glomerulus

2

calyx

cup-shaped part of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules

3

cortex

the outer layer of the kidney

4

glormerulus

collection of coiled intertwined capillaries located in the kidney cortex

5

kidneys

two organs on the posterior abdominal wall that filter the blood, excreting the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine, and regulating body mineral levels

6

medulla

the inner layer of the kidney

7

nephron

the structural and functional unit of the kidney, the parenchyma, numbering about a million and capable of forming urine

8

renal artery

one of two large arteries branching from the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to kidneys, adrenals, and ureters

9

renal pelvis

the funnel-shaped expansion of the upper end of the ureter

10

renal tubule

long, twisted tube leading from glomerulus to collecting tubules

11

renal vein

one of two large veins that carries blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava

12

ureter

the tubular structure through which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder

13

urethra

the passage through which urine is discharged from the bladder to the body exterior

14

urinary bladder

musculomembranous sac that stores urine, receiving it through the ureters and discharging it through the urethra

15

urinary meatus

opening of the urethra to the exterior

16

azoturia

excess urea (or other nitrogen compounds) in urine

17

calculus (renal) (pl., calculi)

kidney stone(s)

18

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

19

dialysis

the process of using an artificial kidney to filter waste materials from the body

20

"floating kidney"

a kidney not securely fixed in the usual location because of a birth defect or injury

21

glomerulonephritis

nephritis with inflammation of the capillary loops in the renal glomeruli

22

hydroneophrosis

distention of the renal pelvis with urine, caused by obstruction of the ureter

23

nephrolithiasis

a condition marked by the presence of renal calculi (stones)

24

nephroptosis

downward displace of a kidney

25

nephrorrhaphy

suture of the kidney

26

pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

27

renal failure

kidney fails to function normally, e.g., in excretion of body waste

28

renal transplant

transferring a kidney surgically from one person to another to replace a diseased structure

29

uremia

the retention of toxic body waste in blood

30

ureterostomy

creation of a new outlet for a ureter through the abdominal wall to the outside

31

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

32

urinary tract infection (UTI)

an infection of the urinary tract

33

Wilms' tumor

a malignant tumor of the kidney, usually affecting children under age 5

34

albuminuria

abnormal presence of serum albumin (protein) in the urine

35

anuria

no urine produced

36

bladder distention

full urinary bladder

37

blood chemistries

blood tests for kidney function, especially blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine

38

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

the urea (in terms of nitrogen) concentration of serum or plasma; an important indicator of renal function

39

catheterization

passage of a catheter (tube) into the bladder to relieve bladder distention or for other purposes

40

Clinitest

popular test for urine glucose or other substances

41

continent

able to control urination (and/or defecation)

42

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary tract with a cytoscope

43

diuresis

increased excretion of urine

44

dysuria

painful or difficult urination

45

enuresis

uncontrolled urination while sleeping (bed-wetting)

46

frequency (urgency)

desire to urinate at short intervals, but discharging small amounts because of reduced bladder capacity

47

hematuria

the presence of blood in the urine

48

incontinent

inability to control urination (and/or defecation)

49

intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

a technique in radiology for examining the structures and evaluating the function of the urinary system

50

I & O

intake and output. the amount of fluids (usually) ingested and excreted in a given period of time, measured and charted

51

KUB

abbreviation for kidney, ureter, and bladder

52

micturate

urinate

53

nocturia, mycturia

excessive urination at night

54

oliguria

excreting a small amount of urine

55

pyuria

pus in the urine

56

retrograde pyelgram

a technique in radiology for examining the structures of the collecting system of the kidneys that is especially useful in locating an obstruction in the urinary tract

57

scan (renal)

an image produced after the patient is injected with a radioactive substance. it determines kidney shape and function

58

testape

special paper that changes color with dipped in urine

59

ultrasonography

imagining body structures but recording the echoes of high-frequency sound waves reflected by body tissues on a paper or other device

60

urinalysis (UA)

analysis of the urine, e.g., acidity, sugar level

61

urinary retention

inability to urinate for various reasons. body retains urine waste

62

vescio-

a combining form meaning "pertaining to the bladder"

63

void

to empty the bladder, urinate

64

Cowper's glands

pea-sized glands that secrete lubricating fluid during intercourse. also called bulbourethral glands

65

glans penis

tip of the penis

66

penis

the organ of copulation

67

perineum

area between the scrotum and anus

68

prepuce

fold of skin covering the glans penis at birth; foreskin

69

prostate gland

gland surrounding the neck of the bladder and urethra; contributes secretions that enhance sperm motility and neutralizes acid vaginal secretions

70

scrottum

two-compartment sac outside the body that houses the testes

71

testis (pl., testes)

one of the pair of male gonads that produce semen

72

epididymis

a duct bordering the testes for storage, transit, and maturation of spermatozoa

73

vas deferens

extension of the epididymis that joins the seminal vesicle form the ejaculatory duct

74

seminal duct

the passages for conveyance of spermatozoa and semen

75

ejaculatory duct vesicle

the duct formed by union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle

76

urethra

opening for sperm and urine passage to the outside of the body

77

accessory glands

their secretions mix with sperm to form seminal fluid

78

external genitalia

scrotum and penis

79

Barholin's glands

small mucus-secreting glands located near the vagina

80

clitoris

erectile tissue junction of labia majora and labia minora; equivalent to male penis

81

hymen

thin elastic connective tissue covering the vaginal opening

82

cervix

necklike section at lower end of uterus

83

fallopian tubes (oviducts)

ducts in which fertilization occurs and passageway for ova to the uterus

84

ovary

the female gonad: either of the paired female sex glands in which ova are formed and released, and which produce the female hormones

85

urterus

cavity opening into the vagina below and into a fallopian tube on either side; organ for nourishing the fetus

86

vagina

birth canal and receptacle for copulation

87

labia majora

two outer folds of skin on either side of the vaginal orifice

88

labia minora

two thin folds of skin within the folds of the labia majora

89

mammary glands

female breasts; considered accessory glands to the FRS, they are necessary for breast-feeding of the infant (lactation)

90

mons pubis

mound of fatty tissue over the pubis

91

perineum

area between vaginal orifice and anus

92

benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

enlargement of the prostate gland, common among men by the age of 50

93

circumcision

removing foreskin, or prepuce

94

cryptorchidism

undescended testicle(s)

95

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymis; from venereal disease

96

hydrocele

fluid collected in the testes

97

orchiectomy

castration

98

orchiopexy

fixation of an undescended testis in the scrotum

99

orchitis

inflammation of a testis

100

prostatectomy

excision of all or part of the prostate

101

varicocele

varicose veins near the testes

102

vasectomy

male sterilization by cutting or tying the vas deferens

103

abortion (AB)

expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable

104

Bartholin's cyst or abscess

chronic or acute inflammation of Bartholin's gland

105

colporrhaphy

suture of the vagina; to correct cystocele and rectocele

106

colposcopy

examination of the cervix by means of colposcope

107

cystocele

hernia of the bladder into the vagina

108

dilatation and curettage (D&C)

dilating the uterine cervix and using a curette to scrape the endometrium of the uterus; to diagnose disease, to correct vaginal bleeding, or to produce abortion

109

endometriosis

cells of the lining of the uterus spreading into the pelvis (peritoneal cavity)

110

fibroids

colloquial term for benign tumor (leiomyoma) of the uterus

111

fistula

an abnormal passage between two internal organ, e.g., vesicovaginal (between bladder and vagina) fistula

112

hydrosalpinx

fluid collecting in the uterine tube, causing distention

113

hysterectomy

excision of the uterus

114

hyserosalpingogram

an x-ray film of the uterus and the fallopian tubes to allow visualization of the cavity of the uterus and the passageway of the tubes

115

laparoscopy

laparoscopic visualization of the peritoneal cavity

116

leukorrhea

a whitish, viscid discharge from the vagina

117

miscarriage

spontaneous abortion

118

monilia (moniliasis)

yeastlike fungus infection of the vagina and other body parts

119

oophorectomy

excisions of one or both ovaries; female castration

120

pelvic examination

a diagnostic procedure in which the external and internal genitalia are physically examined using inspection, palpation, etc.

121

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

any inflammatory condition of the female pelvic organs, especially one caused by bacterial infection

122

prolapse of uterus

downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina

123

salpingectomy

excision of one or both fallopian tubes

124

salpingitis

inflammation of one or both fallopian tubes

125

trichomonas infection

inflammation of the vagina by a parasite, with itching and foul discharge

126

tubal ligation

sterilization by "tying" both fallopian tubes

127

vaginal speculum

an instrument used to dilate the vagina during a pelvic examination

128

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

a fatal disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body's immune system by invading the helper T-cels (T-lymphocytes). HIV replicates itself in the T-cell, destroying the cell, and then invades other T-cels

129

chlamydia

a widespread sexually transmitted bacterial infection that invades the urethra of men and the vagina and cervix of women. the disease is asymptomatic in the early stages, which makes possible the spread of chlamydia as the partners are unaware that they have it

130

gonorrhea

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the genital tract, affecting both male and female, caused by gonococci (berry-shaped) bacteria. gonorrhea is spread by intercourse with an infected partner, or passed from an infected mother to her infant during birth

131

genital herpes

a highly contagious veneral disease caused by the type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-2), although it may be caused by HSV-1, the virus associated with oral infections (cold sores). genital herpes is transmitted by direct contact with infected body secretion. remissions and relapses occur and no drug is known to be effective as a cure

132

genital warts

small, fleshy growths on the external genitalia. genital warts are transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse. they are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) and appear from 1 to 6 months after the initial contact

133

syphilis

a chronic, infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria, and transmitted by sexual intercourse with an infected partner. this is a highly infectious disease that can affect any body organ. a chancre (hard ulcer) appears on the external genitalia a few weeks after exposure. it usually develops on the penis of the male and the labia of the female

134

amniocentesis

taking a sample amniotic fluid during pregnancy for various reasons

135

amnion (BOW)

amniotic sac; bag of waters

136

anesthesia (OB)

loss of feeling or sensation, especially the loss of pain sensation induced to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures

137

antepartum

period from conception to onset of labor

138

Apgar

the evaluation of an infant's physical condition, usually performed 1 and 5 min after birth, based on a rating of five factors that reflect the infant's ability to adjust to extrauterine life

139

bloody show

appearance of blood forerunning labor

140

casesarean (C-section)

a surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered

141

cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)

a condition in which the fetal head is too large for the mother's pelvis

142

Coombs' test

a blood test to diagnose hemolytic anemias in a new born

143

dystocia

abnormal labor or childbirth

144

extopic pregnancy (extrauterine)

pregnancy outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube

145

EDC

expected date of confinement (due date)

146

episiotomy

surgical incision into the perineum and/or vagina for obstetric purposes

147

fetal heart tones (FHT, fht)

the fetal heart sounds heard through the mother's abdomen in pregnancy

148

forceps devliery

applying forceps to fetal head; low or midforceps delivery according to the degree of engagement of the fetal head and high when engagement has not occured

149

gestation

period from conception to birth

150

gravida

a pregnant woman; gravid means "pregnant"

151

ICN

intensive care nursery

152

induction

labor is initiated artifically, e.g., by a drug

153

insemination

the depositing of seminal fluid within the vagina or cervix

154

intrapartum

period from onset of labor through first hour after delivery

155

LMP

last menstural period (due date)

156

lochia

a vaginal discharge during the first week or two after childbirth

157

meconium

dark green mucilaginous material in the intestine of the full-term fetus, expelled as first stool

158

multigravida

a woman who has had more than one pregnancy

159

multipara

a woman who has borne more than one viable infant

160

neonatal period

the first 4 weeks after birth

161

obstetrical index (OB index_

the number of pregnancies, term deliveries, abortions, and stillbirths a woman has experienced

162

pelvimeter (pelvimetry)

an instrument used to measure the capacity and diameter of the pelvis for delivery

163

placenta

organ for exchange of nutrients and wastes between mother and fetus; called afterbirth

164

postpartum

6-week period following childbirth

165

prenatal

before birth

166

presentation

the position of a baby in utero with reference to the part of the baby that is directed toward or into the birth canal

167

primipara

a woman bearing her first viable child

168

stillborn (sb)

born dead

169

test-tube baby

the fertilization of an ovum outside of the uterus

170

toxemia

a group of pataologic conditions, essentially metabolic disturbances, occuring in pregnant women, manifested by hypertension, edema, etc. may be preeclampsia or eclampsia

171

trimester

a period of 12 weeks

172

vernix caseosa

a "cheesy" white substance on the skin of the newborn