Chapter 13 - Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Respiratory System Deck (127):
1

nasal cavity

nose, nares, cavity separated by septum

2

pharynx

throat, cavity behind the nasal cavities and mouth

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larynx

voice organ, containing the vocal cords

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trachea

windpipe

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lung

two cone-shaped spongy organs consisting of alveoli, blood vessels, nerves, and elastic tissue. each is enveloped in a double-folded membrane called the pleura

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parietal pleura

the serous membrane that lines the thoracic (chest) cavity

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visceral pleura

membrane that covers the lungs. this membrane and the parietal membrane are close together. between them is a thin film of lubricating fluid that prevents friction when they slide against each other

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bronchus (pl., bronchi)

one of the larger passages conveying air to (right or left principal lobe) and within the lungs

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bronchioles

one of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree

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alveolus (pl., alveoli)

a small saclike dilation (outpocketing) of the alveolar ducts

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diaphragm

muscular partittion that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in the process of breathing

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abscess (lung)

a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissues

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anthracosis

accumulation of carbon deposits in the lung due to breathing smoke or coal dust, also known as black lung disease

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ARDS

adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome

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asbestosis

lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles. associated with development of mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer

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asphyxiation

suffocation

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asthma

spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading to bronchail airway obstruction

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atelectasis

incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth, or collapse of adult lung

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bradypnea

abnormally slow breathing

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bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of one or more bronchi

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bronchitis

inflammation of one or more bronchi

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byssinosis

lung disease resulting from inhaling cotton, flax, or hemp, also know as brown lung disease

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carcinoma

a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending in infiltrate surround tissues and to give rise to metastases

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coccidioidomycosis

a respiratory infection caused by spore inhalation of Coccidioides immitis, varying in severity from that of a common cold to symptoms resembling those of influenza; also called valley fever

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COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary (lung) disease, especially emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma

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cor pulmonale

heart failure from pulmonary disease

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coryza

profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose; the common cold

28

cough

a forceful expiration preceded by a preliminary inhalation. usually caused by irritation of the airways from dust, smoke, infection, or mucus. can be described as croupy, rasping, harsh, hollow, loose, dry, productive, brassy, bubble, or wracking

29

cystic fibrosis

generalized hereditary disorder of infants, children, and young adults associated with malfunctioning of the pancreas and frequent respiratory infections

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deviated septum

defect in the wall between the nostrils that can cause partial or complete obstruction

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diphtheria

an acute bacterial infection primarily affecting the membranes of the nose, throat, or larynx accompanied by fever and pain

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effusion

escape of a fluid; exudation or transudation

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emphysema

a pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs

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epistaxis

hemorrhage from the nose: nosebleed

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expectoration

the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up material from the lungs

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fibrosis

formation of fibrous or scar tissue (in lungs) usually caused by precious infections

37

flail chest

chest wall moves paradoxically with respiration, owing to multiple fractures of the ribs

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"flu"

popular name for influenza

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hay fever

a hypersensitive state, e.g., allergy to pollen

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hemothorax

blood in the pleural thoracic cavity

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hiatal hernia

protrusion of part of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus defect of the diaphragm

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hiccup

sharp respiratory sound with spasm of the glottis and diaphragm

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histoplasmosis

fungal infection of lungs, may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, resembling TB

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hyaline

glossy, translucent

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hyaline membrane disease

lack of surfactant due to a layer of hyaline material lining the alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles. leading cause of neonatal deaths

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influenza

an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract; serious for the very young and old

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laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

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laryngotracheobronchitis

inflammation of the larynx, trachea and bronchi

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lung abscess

pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have gone to a localized area to fight infection

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pertussis

acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by bacterium Bordetella pertusis. commonly called whopping cough

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pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

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pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid in the plerual space, which compresses the underlying portion of the lung, resulting in dyspnea

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pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

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pneumoconiosis

any lung disease, e.g., anthracosis, silicosis, caused by permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate matter in the lungs

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pneumothorax

a collection of gas or air in the pleural cavity, resulting from a perforation through the chest wall or the visceral pleura

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rhinities rhinorrhea

inflammation of the nasal membrane; "runny nose"

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SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome, or crib death; cause unknown. associated failure of synapse of nerves to activate the diaphragm

58

sinusitis

inflammation of a sinus

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sneeze

spasmodic contraction of muscles causing air to be expelled forcefully through the nose and mouth

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streptococcal throat

sore throat caused by the spore bacteria Streptococcus

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tonsillitis

inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils

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tuberculosis (TB)

an infectious disease, marked by tubercles and caseous necrosis in tissues of the lung

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URI

upper respiratory infection, general term for colds or "flu"

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valley fever

see coccidioidomycosis

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wheezing

a high-pitched, whistling sound from air movement through narrowed bronchioles during exhalation; symptom of asthma and COPD

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whooping cough

a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, marked by peculiar paroxysms of cough, ending in a prolonged crowing or whooping respiration

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aerosol

a medication that can be sprayed from a container to relieve bronchial distress, especially asthma

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anoxia

without oxygen

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apnea

temporary cession of breathing; asphyxia

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bifurcation

a division into two branches, e.g., bronchi

71

blood gases

oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the blood

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bronchodilator

an ageny capable of dilating the bronchi

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bronchoscope

an instrument for inspecting the bronchi

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bronchoscopy

lung examination using a bronchoscope

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bronchospasm

spasmodic contraction of bronchi muscles, as in asthma

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Cheyne-Stokes

breathing characterized by waxing and waning of the depth of respiration: the patient breathes deeply a short time and then breaths slightly or stops altogether. the cycle repeats

77

CO2

carbon dioxide; an orderless, colorless gas resulting from oxidation of carbon, formed in the tissues and eliminated by the lungs

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consolidation

solidification of lung tissue, as in pneumonia

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CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation; artificial means of providing circulation and breathing during cardiac and respiratory arrest

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cyanosis

a bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes caused by insufficient oxygen in the blood

81

dyspnea

labored or difficult breathing

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endotracheal (ET) tube

an airway catherer inserted in the trachea during surgery and for a temporary airway in emergency situations

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expectorant

an agent that promotes expectoration (loosening of secretions)

84

hemoptysis

the spitting of blood or of blood-stained sputum (from the lungs)

85

hiatus

a gap (opening), especially in the diaphragm

86

hypercapnia

an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood

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hyperventilation

increased rate and/or depth of respiration, e.g., from anxiety

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hyposensitization

the process of rendering hyposensitive, e.g., exposing a patient to an offending substance to reduce his or her sensitivity to the substance

89

hypoxia

insufficient oxygen

90

IPPB

intermittent positive pressure breathing, used as treatment with ventilation

91

Kussmaul breathing

gasping, labored breathing, also called air hunger

92

laryngectomy

excision of the larynx

93

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the interior larynx with an instrument called larynoscope

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lavage of sinuses

the irrigation or washing out of sinuses

95

lobectomy

excision of a lobe of the lung

96

Mantoux (test)

TB skin test

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O2 (oxygen)

constitutes about 20% of atmospheric air; inhaled and carried in the blood

98

orthopnea

difficult breathing, except in the upright position

99

oximetry

measurement of the oxygen saturation of arterial blood

100

palpation

application of hands and fingers to external surfaces to detect abnormalities

101

parenchyma (lung)

the essential elements or "working parts" of an organ e.g., alveoli in the lung

102

peak expiratory flow rate

measurement of how fast a person can exhale using a small handheld device to monitor treatment in asthma or COPD

103

percussion and auscultation (P & A)

striking the body (e.g., chest) with short, sharp blows of the fingers, and listening through a stethoscope for the sounds produced. technique used by practitioners

104

perfusion

the passage of a fluid through the vessels of a specific organ to supply nutrients and oxygen

105

pneumothorax

air or gas in the pleural space; from trauma or from deliberate introduction; may be spontaneous

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postural drainage

drainage by placing the patient's head downward so that the trachea will be inclined below the affected area and the secretions mobilized

107

PPD

purified protein derivative (TB test)

108

productive cough

cough with spitting of material from the bronchi

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pulmonary function

tests to assess ventilatory status

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rales, rhonci

an abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, indicating some pathologic condition

111

rarefaction

condition of being less dense, e.g., decreased density in x-ray films

112

residual air

air remaining or left behind after expiration

113

respirator (ventilator)

a device for giving artificial respiration or to assist in pulmonary ventilation

114

rhinoplasty

plastic surgery of the nose

115

scan (lung, pleura)

an image or a "picture" produced using radioactive isotopes, e.g., B-mode ultrasonography

116

SMR

submucous resection, excision of a portion of the submucous membrane of the nose to correct a defect

117

SOB

shortness of breath

118

spirometer (spirometry)

an instrument for measuring air taken into and expelled from the lungs; spirometry is the measurement of lung capacity

119

sputum

matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth

120

tachypena

very rapid respiration

121

thoracentesis

surgical puncture of the chest wall into the parietal cavity to remove fluid

122

tine test

TB test

123

tracheostomy

incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck

124

ventilator

an apparatus to assist in pulmonary ventilation; see also respirator

125

vital capacity

amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after deep inspiration (pulmonary function test)

126

wheeze

breathing with a raspy or whistling sound. common symptom of asthma

127

x-ray examination

visual record made using x-rays, for diagnostic examination of the chest; may by AP (antereoposterior) or Lat (side) views