Chapter 15 - Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Nervous System Deck (135):
1

cerebrum

main (largest) portion of the brain, occupying the upper part of the crainal cavity; its two hemisphere, united by the corpus callosum, form the largest part of the CNS in humans

2

cerebellum

situated on the back of the brain stem; consisting of a median lobe (vernis) and two lateral lobes (the hemispheres)

3

brain stem

the stemlike portion of the brain connectin the cerebral hemisphes with the spinal cord and comprising the pons, medula oblongata, and midbrain

4

encephalon

located between the cerebrum and midbrain, it contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal glands. involved in controlling body temperatures, sleep, appetite, blood pressure, and sexual activity

5

meninges

the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord: dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater

6

dura mater

the outermost, toughest of the three meninges (membranes) of the brain and spinal cord

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arachnoid

the delicate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater

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pia mater

the innermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord

9

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid within the ventricles of the brain, the subarachonoid space, and the central canal

10

olfactory

sense of smell

11

optic

vision

12

oculomotor

movements of the eye

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trochlear

muscles of the eyes

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trigeminal

facial movements

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abducens

muscles of the eyes turning the eye outward

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facial

muscles of the face, ears, and scalp

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auditory

pertaining to the ear or the sense of hearing

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glossopharyngeal

pertaining to the tongue and pharynx

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pneymogastric vagus

voice and swallowing

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spinal

neck muscles

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hypoglossal

beneath the tongue

22

sympathetic

the part of the autonomic nervous system assisting the body in emergencies, defense, and survival

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parasympathetic

the part of the autonomic nervous system bringing body functions back to normal after a stressful situation has ended

24

abscess (brain)

secondary to infection in the body, e.g., ear, sinuses

25

Alzheimer's disease (presenile dementia)

characterized by confusion, restlessness, agnosia, speech disturbances, inability to carry out purposeful movements, and hallucinations. the disease usually beings in later midlife with slight defects in memory and behavior and occurs with equal frequency in men and woman. the cause is unknown

26

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons; usualy fatal

27

anencephaly

congenital absence of the brain; death occurs in 1-2 days

28

Bell's palsy

unilateral facial paralysis of sudden onset caused by lesion of the facial nerve; facial distortion

29

carpal tunnel syndrome

the disorder is largely due to repetitive overuse of the fingers, hands, or wrists, which causes inflammation of the median nerve in the tunnel. symptoms are intermittent or continuous pain, espcially at night. treatment involves anti-inflammatory drugs, splints, physical therapy, and ceasing the overuse. if these measure fail, surgical measures to relieve the pressure may be necessary

30

cerebral palsy

paralysis from development defects or trauma; many symptoms; appearing before age 3, caused by nonprogressive damage to the brain

31

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

a decrease in blood flow supply to the brain, causing death to the specific portion of the brain tissues affected. the three types of CVA are hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when a cerebral vessel ruptures, thrombotic stroke, with occurs when a blood clot in the arteries leading to the brain becomes occluded (blocked), and embolic stroke, which occurs when an embolus (fragment of blood clot, fat, bacteria, or tumor) lodges in a cerebral vessel and causes occlusion

32

concussion

a violent blow to the head; there may or may not be a loss of consciousness

33

convulsion (seizure)

an involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles; sudden disturbances in mental functions and body movements, some with loss of consciousness

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encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

35

epilepsy

seizure disorder; cause usually unknown; symptoms can be managed with medication

36

fracture (skull)

a break in the bones of the skull; cause can be injury, gunshot wounds

37

grand mal seizure

also called tonic-clonic seizures; characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and involuntary muscle contractions. often preceded by an aura, a peculiar sensation such as visual disturbance, numbness, or dizziness, which appears just before more definite symptoms

38

hematoma

blood "tumor" (clot); must be removed if large enough to cause pressure on brain

39

herpes zoster

"shingles"; an acute inflammatory disease of cerebral or spinal nerve due to viral infection; common in the elderly

40

hydrocephalus

"water on the brain";a congenital or acquired condition marked by dilation of the cerebral ventricles accompanied by an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull. typically, there is enlargement of the head, prominence of the forehead, mental deterioration, and convulsions

41

Huntington's chorea

ceaseless occurrence of rapid, jerky, involuntary movements, hereditary disease marked by chronic progressive chorea and mental deterioration

42

Korsakoff's syndrome

an alcoholic psychosis with disorientation, progressing to complete amnesia

43

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infection

44

meningocele (myelomeningocele)

hernial protrusion of the meninges through a bone defect in the cranium or vertebral column; may be repaired surgically

45

multiple sclerosis (MS)

brain and cord contain areas of degenerated myelin. symptoms of lesions include weakness, incoordination, speech disturbances, and visual complaints

46

myasthenia gravis (MG)

a progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by chronic fatigue and muscle weakness; considered to be an autoimmune disease. antibodies block and destroy receptors at the myoneural junction because of a deficiency of acetylcholine. the onset of symptoms is gradual, with drooping eyelids, difficulty speaking and swallowing and weakness of the facial muscles. the weakness may then extend to other muscles enervated by cranial nerves, especially the respiratory muscles. the disease occurs more often in woman than men, with onset between ages 20-40, and in older men more often than in younger men. onset is between ages 50-60

47

neuropathy

disease of cranial and peripheral nervous system; motor, sensory, and reflex impairment

48

organic brain syndrome (chronic brain syndrome)

any mental disorder caused by impairment of brain tissue function; may be acute and reversible, caused by injury, infection, and nutritional deficiency, or chronic, resulting from relatively permanent organic impairment of brain tissue function

49

Parkinson's disease

a slowly progressive, degenerative, neurologic disorder characterized by resting tremor

50

petit mal seizures

also called absence seizure, the petit mal is a minor seizure lasting only a few seconds. the person has a momentary clouding of consciousness, maybe have a blank facial expression, and blink their eyes rapidly. the duration of the seizure if 5-10s. the individual may not be aware of the episode. it is more frequent in children

51

poliomyelitis

an acute viral disease with fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and often stiffness of the neck and back; may be minor or major; can be prevented by vaccination

52

sciatica

severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve; also pain radiating into the buttock and lower limb, most commonly caused by herniation of a lumbar disk

53

shunt

to bypass, e.g., using a catheter to drain fluid from brain cavities to the spinal cord

54

spinal cord injuries

a traumatic disruption of the spinal cord, with extensive musculoskeletal involvement. spinal fractures and dislocations are common in car accidents and airplane crashes and can cause varying degrees of paraplegia and quadriplegia

55

subdurnal hemotoma

the blood is usually a result of a closed head injury, acceleration-deceleration injury, use of anticoagulants, contusions, or chronic alcoholism. they are largely a result of venous bleeding. an acute subdural hematoma can occur within minutes or hours following an injury; a chronic subdural hemaoma takes weeks to months to evolve, symptoms include drowsiness, headache, confusion, possible, seizure, and signs of ICP and paralysis. treatment involves surgical evacuation of the blood. in acute, subdurals, it may be removed through bur holes in the skull, but chronic ones require a craniotomy because the blood has solidified and cannont be aspirated through bur holes

56

Tay-Sach's disease

an inherited inborn error of metabolism in which there is an enzyme deficiency causing altered lipid metabolism. deficiency of this enzyme results in accumlation of a specific lipid in the brain, which leads to physical and mental retardation. it is a progressive disorder, marked by degeneration of brain tissue, dementia, convulsions, paralysis, blindness, and death. the symptoms begin around 6 months of age. death occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. it is possible to test for this disease in the unborn fetus through amniocentesis. no therapy is available for the disease. supportive and symptomatic care is indicated. tay-sach's primarily affects children of ashkenazic jews

57

tumors (cord, brain)

benign or malignant, primary or metastatic; may be classified by location, tissue type, or degree of malignancy, e.g., gliomas, neuromas

58

whiplash

a popular term for an acute cervical sprain; acceleration extension injury of the cervical spine

59

angiogram (arteriogram), cerebral

a radiopaque substance is injected into artieries in the neck, then x-ray films are taken

60

Babinski's sign

reflex response; when sole of the foot is stroked, the big toe turns up instead of down (normal in newborn, but pathologic later on)

61

bur holes

holes made with a drill creating openings in bone to permit access for biopsy, insertion for drains for relieving pressure, or for monitoring devices

62

computerized tomography (CT) brain scan. also called CAT scan

three-dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray beams pass through layers of the brain. contrast medium may also be injected IV to better visualize abnormalities. CT scan will show areas of tumors, hemorrhage, blood clots, aneurysms, MS, and brain abscess

63

cordotomy

cutting of nerve fibers to relieve intractable pain

64

craniotomy

any operation on the cranium, e.g., puncture of the skull and removal of its contents to decrease the size of the head of a dead fetus and aid in delivery

65

echoencephalogram (EEG)

use of ultrasound to show displacement of brain structures

66

electroencephalogran (EKG)

record of electrical activity of the brain

67

laboratory procedures

examination of cerbrospinal fluid (cell counts, culture, blood)

68

laminectomy

exicsion of the posterior arch of a vertebra to view the spinal cord or to relieve pressure

69

lumbar puncture (LP)

spinal tap

70

lumbar sympathectomy

a surgical interruption of part of the sympathetic nerve pathways, performed for the relief of chronic pain in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, claudication, and so on

71

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain

noninvasive technique using magnetic waves to create an image of the brain. the MRI is far more precise and accurate than most diagnostic tools. it provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures. MRI and CT are used to complement each other in diagnosing brain and spinal cord lesions. persons with any implanted metal devices such as a pacemaker, prosthesis, etc. cannot undergo MRI because the strong magnetic field will dislodge them

72

myelogram (myelography)

the film produced by myelography, e.g., injection of a dye into the subarachnoid space to detect tumors or herniated disks

73

nerve block

injection of anesthetic into a nerve to produce the loss of sensation

74

nerve cells (neurons)

conducting cells of the nervous system, consisting of a cell body containing the nucleus and its surrounding cytoplasm, and the axon and dendrites; specialized cells for transmitting impulses

75

pneumoencephalogram (PEG)

the radiograph obtained by visulatzaion of the fluid-containing structures of the brain after cerebrospinal fluid is intermittently withdrawn by lumbar puncture and replace by air, oxygen, or helium

76

positron emission tomography (PET) scan

images of various structures show how the brain uses gluclose and gives information about brain function. PET scans are used to asses Alzheimer's, stroke, epilepsy, and schizophrenia, as well as study and diagnose brain tumors

77

rhizotomoy

cutting the roots of spinal nerves to relieve incurable pain

78

Romberg test

a test of the sense of balance, e.g., the patient may lose balance when standing erect, feet together, and eyes closed

79

trephination

drilling a hole in the skull to evacuate clots of inject air for a disnostic procedure

80

vagotomy

surgical transection of the fibers of the vagus nerve

81

ventriculography

radiography of the cerebral ventrilces after introduction of air or other contrast medium

82

affect

the feeling experienced in connection with an emotion

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aggression

hostile attitude; maybe be due to insecurity or inferiority feeling

84

ambivalence

conflicting emotional attitudes toward a goal, e.g., hate and love

85

amnesia

loss of memory

86

autism

complete withdrawal; inability to communicate

87

catatonia

excessive violent motor activity or lack of reaction and movement; observed in schizophrenia

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delusion

a false personal belief

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delirium

a mental disturbance of relatively short duration, e.g., illusions, hallucinations, and excitement

90

depression

in psychiarty, a morbid sadness, dejection, or melancholy; a decrease of body functions

91

echolalia

automatic repetition by a patient of what is said to him or her

92

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, EST)

introducing convulsions by means of electricity; used on patients with affective disorders

93

hallucination

hearing or seeing things not really present

94

hypochondria

imaginary illnesses

95

hysteria

extremely emotional state

96

involutional melancholia

mental illness in late middle life, with agitation, worry, anxiety, and insomnia

97

malingering

make believe, e.g., pretending to be ill

98

manic-depressive

major psychosis; fluctuation of behavior between mania and depression; also called bipolar disorder

99

megalomania

belief in one's own extreme greatness, goodness, or power

100

neurasthenia

a stage in the recovery from a schizophrenic experience during which the patient is listless and apparently unable to cope with routine activities and relationships

101

neurosis

an emotional disorder caused by unresolved conflicts anxiety being its chief characteristic; person is still in touch with reality

102

paranoid

a person who is overly suspicious (in trends or attitudes)

103

phobia

any persistent abnormal dread or fear

104

psychosis

a major mental disorder, with personality derangement and loss of contact with reality

105

rapid eye movement (REM)

occur during periods of dreaming

106

schizophrenia

any of a group of severe emotional disorders characterized by withdrawal from reality, delusions, hallucinations, ambivalence, inappropriate affect, and withdrawn, bizarre, and regressive behavior

107

aphasia

loss of the ability to speak owing to injury or disease of the brain centers

108

ataxia

failure of muscular coordination

109

biofeedback

the process of furnishing a person with information on the state of one or more physiologic variables, such as heart rate, blood pressure, or skin temperature, often enabling the person to gain some voluntary control over the body function

110

cauda equina

the collection of spinal roots descending from the lower spinal cord and supplying the rectal area

111

comatose

in deep stupor; cannot be aroused

112

contrecoup

denoting an injury to the brain, occurring at a site opposite to the point of impact

113

deep tendon reflex (DTR)

a reflex elicited by a sharp tap on the appropriate tendon or muscle to induce brief stretch of the muscle, followed by contraction

114

encephalon

the brain

115

fissure

many meaning; one refers to a deep furrow in the brain

116

flaccid

weak, lax, soft, flabby; poor muscle tone

117

foramen magnum

a large opening in the occipital bone through with the cord passes

118

ganglion

a knot. a group of nerve cell bodies, located outside the central nervous system

119

gyrus (pl., gyri)

convolutions of the cerebrum

120

hemisphere

either half of the brain

121

ipsilateral

situated on or affecting the same side

122

limbic system

the part of the brain associated with attitudes and emotional behavior

123

manometer

an instrument for measuring the pressure, e.g., of spinal fluid

124

myelin

white, liquid, fatty substances surrounding some nerve fibers (white matter)

125

neurilemma (sheath of Schwann)

the membrane surround the peripheral nerves

126

paralysis

inability to use muscles because of damage to the nervous system

127

paresis

slight or incomplete paralysis

128

paresthesia

an abnormal sensation, such as burning or prickling

129

plexus

a network of nerves or blood vessels

130

reflex

an involuntary response to a stimulus

131

spastic

uncontrollable and forced contractions

132

stimuls

any agent, act, or influence that produces a reaction or response

133

sulcus (pl., sulci)

a groove, trench, or furrow on the brain surface

134

syncope

a faith; temporary loss of consciousness

135

ventricle (brain)

a small cavity in the brain