Chapter 18 - Eyes and Ears Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Eyes and Ears Deck (141):
1

scerla

tough white outer coat of the eyeball

2

conjunctiva

membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball

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cornea

transparent anterior part of the eye

4

choroid

the middle, vascular coat of the eye, between the sclera and the retina

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iris

pigmented membrane behind the cornea, perforated by the pupil

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pupil

opening in the center through which light enters the eye

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lens

transparent body separating the posterior chamber and constituting the refracting mechanism of the eye

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ciliary muscle

eye muscle capable of changing lens shape during contraction and relaxation

9

aqueous humor

watery liquid in chamber in the front of the lends; it circulates through the anterior chamber of the eye

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vitreous humor

jellylike transparent substance in the posterior chamber

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retina

innermost layer of the eyeball, containing elements for reception and transmission of visual stimuli

12

amblyopia

dimness of vision without a detectable organic lesion of the eye; related to absence, weakness, or paralysis of an eye muscle

13

astigmatism

condition characterized by irregular cornea and lens of the eye; corrected with lenses

14

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelids

15

blepharoptosis

drooping of upper eyelid

16

cataract

opaque (not clear) lens of the eye

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chalazion

a small eyelid mass resulting from chronic inflammation of meibomian gland

18

color blindness

popular term for any deviation from normal perception of color

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conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva

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corneal ulcer

a local inflammation of the cornea caused by injury or inflammation

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dacryoadenitis

inflammation of a lacrimal gland

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dacryocystitis

inflammation of the lacrimal gland

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dacryolith

a lacrimal calculus (stone)

24

detached retina

separation of the inner layers of the retina from the pigment epithelium

25

diabetic retinopathy

scarring of the capillaries of the retina as a consequence of DM of long duration. retinal effects of DM include abnormal dilation of the retinal veins, hemorrhage, microaneurysms, and neocascularization (new blood vessels forming near the optic disk causing leakage of blood). these effects cause a permanent decline in vision and will lead to blindness. diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in the US

26

floaters (in vitreous)

"spots before the eyes"; these deposits in the vitreous of the eye usually move about and are probably a benign degenerative charge. also seen in hypertension

27

foreign body in the eye

any object not belonging to the eye; hazards depending on circumstances

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glaucoma

eye disease characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure related to alterations in circulation of vitreous humor, causing pathologic changes and visual defects

29

hemorrhage (subconjunctival)

blood escaping from the vessels, and bleeding from beneath the conjunctiva

30

herpes zoster (ophthalmic)

involving the fifth cranial nerve (forehead, eyelid, and cornea), this infection by a herpes virus can be serious

31

hyperopia

farsightedness, e.g., the person cannot read a book

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injury

eye injuries include foreign bodies, contusions, lacerations, burns, etc.

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iritis

inflammation of the iris

34

keratoconus

conical protrusion of the central part of the cornea

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macular degeneration

deterioration of the macula of the eye, resulting in a severe loss of central vision in the affected eye

36

meibomian cyst

a small localized swelling of the eyelid resulting from obstruction and retained secretion of the meibomian glands. a nonmalignant condition; often requires surgery for correction

37

nystagmus

involuntary rapid movement (horizontal, vertical, rotary, or mixed, i.e., of two types) of the eyeball

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papilledema

edema of the optic disk

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presbyopia`

diminution of accommodation of the lens of the eye caused by loss of elasticity, normally occurring with aging; farsightedness

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ptosis

drooping of upper eyelid

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retinitis

inflammation of the retina

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retinoblastoma

a tumor arising from the retinal cells

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retinopathy

any disease of the retina

44

strabismus

squint; deviation of the eye from normal; crossed eyes; usually correctable

45

stye (or hordeolum)

inflammation of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid

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tranchoma

a contagious disease of the conjunctiva and cornea, producing photophobia, pain, and lacrimation; uncommon

47

uveitis

inflammation of the uvea (iris and blood vessels)

48

cataract extraction

a surgical excision of the lens of the eye. special lenses or glasses are prescribed

49

cryoextraction

application of extremely low temperatures for the removal of a cataractous lens

50

cryoretinopexy

fixation of a detached retina using extremely low temperature instead of the laser beam

51

dacryocystotomy

incision of the lacrimal sac and duct

52

enucleation

surgical removal of the eye

53

fundoscopy

examination and study of the fundus of the eye by means of an ophthalmoscope

54

gonioscopy

instrument for demonstrating ocular motility and rotation

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iridectomy

excision of part of the iris

56

iridencleisis

excision of part of the iris in glaucoma

57

keratoplasty

plastic surgery of the cornea; corneal grafting

58

laster photocoagulation

using the laser beam to treat retinal detachment

59

pterygium surgery

growth of the conjunctiva: neovascularization that invades the cornea; it can be removed surgically

60

slit lamp

an instrument used in ophthalmology for examining the conjunctiva, lens, vitereous humor, iris, and cornea. a high-intensity beam of light is projected through a narrow slit and a cross-section of the illuminated part of the eye is examined through a magnifying lens

61

tonometer

instrument for measuring tension or pressure, especially intraocular pressure

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tonometry

measurement of tension or pressure, e.g., intraocular pressure

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trabeculectomy

excision of fibrous bands or connective tissue

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vitrectomy

aspiration of vitreous fluid and replacement with saline solution

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accommodation

adjustment of the eye for seeing objects at various distances

66

anisocoria

inequality in size of the pupils of the eyes

67

Braille

a system of printing for the blind consisting of raised dots and prints that can be read by touch

68

canal of Schlemm

opening though which aqueous humor must flow out or pressure in the eye increases resulting in glaucoma

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canthus (pl., canthi)

the angle at either end of the fissure between the eyelids

70

CC

with correction (glasses or lenses)

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cryoprobe

an instrument for applying extreme cold to tissue

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cystitome

an instrument for opening the lens capsule

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diopter

unit of measure for lenses

74

electronystagmography

recordings of eye movements to provide objective documentation of induced and spontaneous nystagmus

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emmetropia

normal vision

76

eye bank

storage for donor organs

77

fundus

the back portion of the interior of the eyeball, visible through the pupil by use of the ophthaloscope

78

funduscope (or ophthalmoscope)

an instrument containing a perforated mirror and lenses used to examine the interior of the eye; also spelled "fundoscope"

79

guide dogs

trained dogs for the blind; also called seeing-eye dogs

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lacrimation

secretion and discharge of tears

81

laser

a device that transfers light of various frequencies into an extremely intense, small beam of radiation. it is used as a tool in surgery, in diagnosis, and in physiologic studies

82

lensometer

device for obtaining eyeglass prescriptions

83

miotic (or myotic)

a drug that causes contraction of the pupil

84

mydriatic

a drug that dilates the pupil

85

OD

abbreviation for oculus dexter (right eye)

86

ophthalmoscope

instrument containing a perforated mirror and lenses, used to examine the interior of the eye; also called funduscope

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OS

abbreviation for oculus sinister (left eye)

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OU

abbraviation for oculus uterque (each eye) or oculus unitas (both eyes)

89

peripheral vision

vision at the outer edges when the eyes are looking straight ahead

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PERRLA (or PERLA)

acronym for Pupils Equal, round, React to Light, Accommodation

91

refractive error

the determination of the refractive errors of the eye and their correction with glasses or lenses

92

SC

without correction (glasses or lenses)

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Snellen eye chart

one of the several charts used in testing visual acuity. letters, numbers, or symbols are arranged on the cart in decreasing size from top to bottom

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visual acuity (VA)

clarity or clearness of vision

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20/20 vision

a person who can read what the average person can read at 20 feet has 20/20 vision

96

external ear

auricle (or pinna) or ear canal

97

middle ear

separated from the external ear by the tympanic membrane; consists of three bones: malleus, incus, and stapes

98

inner ear

the complex inner structures of the ear: vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea, composing the membranous labyrinth

99

tympanic membrane

the thing partition between the external acoustic meatus and the middle ear

100

tympanum

eardrum (middle ear)

101

cerumen

earwax

102

eustachian tube

a tube, lined with mucous membrane, that joins the nasopharynx and the tympanic cavity; accomplishes equalization of air pressure

103

acoustic neuroma

a benign tumor arising from the acoustic nerve in the brain. this tumor causes tinnitus, vertigo, and decreased hearing. small tumors may be surgically resected or removed by radiation therapy

104

cholesteatoma

a collection of skin cells and cholesterol in a sac within the middle ear. these cystlike masses are most often the result of chronic otitis media, but may also be a congenital defect. could lead to conductive hearing loss, occlusion of the middle ear, destruction of ossicles, and inner ear erosion. symptoms include weakness of facial muscles, drainage from the affected ear, vertigo, and earache.

105

conduction deafness

hearing loss that occurs when the conduction of sound waves through the external and middle ear to the inner ear is impaired

106

deafness

lacking the sense of hearing; hearing impairment

107

eustachian salpingitis

inflammation of the eustachian tubes

108

furunculosis

a skin infection affecting the ear canal

109

impacted cerumen

cerumen impacted firmly into the ear

110

larbyrinthitis

inflammation of the labyrinth (inner ear); otitis interna

111

mastoiditis

inflammation of the mastoid antrum and cells (of the temporal bone)

112

Meniere's disease

deafness, tinnitus, and dizziness; causes unknown

113

myringitis

inflammation of the tympanic membrane

114

otitis externa

inflammation of the external ear

115

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

116

otoscelerosis

akylosis of the stapes, resulting in conductive hearing loss

117

presbycusis

progressive hearing loss in some elderly persons

118

sensorineural deafness

also called nerve deafness, this type of hearing loss results from physical damage to the hair cells, the vesticulocochlear nerve, or the auditory cortex. this condition may occur because of again. explosions, extremely loud noises, such as from machinery or loud music, and some antibiotics can damage the hair cells in the organ of Corti, creating partial to complete deafness. other causes include brain tumors, strokes, infections trauma, vascular disorders, and degenerative diseases

119

fenestration

the surgical creation of a new opening in the labyrinth of the ear for restoration of hearing in otosclerosis

120

mastoidectomy

excision of the mastoid cells or the mastoid process

121

myringotomy

incision of the tympanic membrane; tympanotomy with placement of tubes to maintain drainage

122

otoplasty

plastic surgery of the ear (pinna)

123

stapedectomy

excision of the stapes

124

tympanoplasty

plastic surgery on the eardrum

125

tympanotomy

myringotomy; incision of the tympanic membrane

126

acoustic meatus

opening or passage in the ear

127

AD

auris dextra, right ear

128

AS

auris sinistra, left ear

129

AU

aures unitas (both ears) or auris uterque (each ear)

130

audiometer

a device for testing the hearing

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audiometrist

person who performs hearing tests

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auditory (or acoustic)

pertaining to the ear; sense of hearing

133

decibel

a unit of measure of the intensity of sound

134

hearing aid

a device used to increase the intensity of sound

135

hearing-ear dogs

dogs trained to respond to sounds and alert the hearing-impaired person

136

otoscope

an instrument used for inspecting the ear

137

otoscopy

examination of the ear by means of otoscope

138

sign language

communcation by means of manual signs and gestures

139

tinnitus

a noise (ringing) in the ears

140

tuning fork

a small metal instrument consisting of a stem and two prongs used to test hearing

141

vertigo

a sensation of rotation or dizziness