Chapter 12 - Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Digestive System Deck (145):
1

mouth

oral cavity forming the beginning of digestive system

2

teeth

structures of the jaws for biting and masticating food

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tongue

chief organ of taste; aids in mastication, swallowing, and speech

4

salivary glands

pertaining to the saliva; glands in the mouth that secrete saliva

5

pharynx

the throat; the membranous cavity behind the nasal cavities and the mouth and before the larynx

6

esophagus

membranous passage extending from the pharynx to the stomach

7

stomach

the musculomembranous expansion of the digestive tract between the esophagus and duodenum, consisting of a cardiac part, a fundus, a body, and a pyloric part

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duodenum

the first portion of the small intestine

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jejunum

part of the small intestine from the duodenum to the ileum

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ileum

last portion of the small intestine, from jejunum to cecum

11

pancreas

a large, elongated gland situated transversely behind the stomach. externally, it secretes digestive enzymes into the common duct. internally, its beta cells secrete insulin and glucagon. the alpha, beta, and delta cells of the pancreas from aggregates, called islets of langerhans

12

liver

the large, dark red gland in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side, just beneath the diaphragm. its functions include storage and filtration of blood, secretion of bile, converstion of sugars into glycogen, and many other metabolic activities

13

gallbladder

the pear-shaped reservior for bile, behind the liver; stores and concentrates bile

14

cecum

the first part of the large intestine, a dilated pouch

15

ascending colon

portion of the colon from the cecum to the hepatic flexure

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transverse colon

portion of the large intestine passing transversely across the upper part of the abdomen, between the hepatic and splenic flexure

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descending colon

portion of the colon from the splenic flexure to the sigmoid colon

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sigmoid colon

portion of the large intestine between descending colon and rectum

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rectum

the last portion of the large intestine

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anus

opening of the rectum on the body surface

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adhesion

union of two surfaces normally separate; also, any fibrous gland that connects them. surgery within the abdomen may results in adhesions from scar tissue

22

alcoholism

excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, interfering with personal health and economy; an addiction. although this disease affects the entire body, the liver is the organ most involved

23

anorexia nervosa

lack or loss of appetite for food; a psycho-physiologic condition characterized by symptoms of undernutrition

24

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix, which may rupture

25

borborygmus

audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. they are rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listenting with a stethoscope

26

botulism

an extremely severe type of food poisoning caused by neurotoxin (botulin) produced by Clostridium botulinum in improperly canned or preserved foods; can be fatal

27

carcinoma

a malignant tumor

28

celiac disease

damage to the lining of the small intestine caused by the inability to digest gluten found in wheat, resulting in malabsorption of nutrients and malnutrtion, if untreated

29

cholelithiasis

gallstones, hardened cholesterol stones formed from the bile crystallization

30

cirrhosis

interstitial inflammation of an organ, particularly the liver; loss of normal architecture, with fibrosis and nodular regeneration

31

cleft lip/palate

congenital fissure or split of the lip (cleft lip) or roof of the mouth (cleft palate)

32

colitis

inflammation of the colon, ulcerative or spastic

33

cryptitis

inflammation of a crypt, especially the anal crypt

34

diverticulitis

inflammation of the diverticula, the pouches that form in the walls of the large intestine

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dysentery

inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood and mucus in stools; most commonly associated with bacterical or parasitic infection

36

emaciation

excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition

37

emesis

material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; vomitus

38

esophageal atresia

congenital absence of the opening between esophagus and stomach

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esophageal varices

enlarged, incompetent veins in the distal esophagus, usually caused by portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis

40

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

41

femoral

hernia into the femoral canal

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flexure

a bend or fold; as the hepatic flexure of the colon (near the liver)

43

gastric ulcers

peptic or duodenal tissue inflammation of the stomach or intestinal linings, with pain and sometimes bleeding from perforation

44

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach lining; a common stomach disorder

45

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestine caused by ingested harmful bacterical toxin, with acute nausea and vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea

46

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

flow of gastric acid contents back up into the esophagus causing heartburn and, if chronic, esophagitis

47

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

48

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver; may be type A, type B, or type C; types D and E have now also been identified

49

hernia

protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening; there are many types

50

hiatal

protrusion of any structure through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm

51

Hirschsprung's disease

congenital megacolon due to absence of autonomic ganglia in a segment of smooth muscle that normally stimulates peristalsis

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impaction (feca)

condition of being impacted. a collection of hardened feces in the rectum or sigmoid colon

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inguinal

hernia into the inguinal canal; may be direct or indirect

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intussusception

prolapse of a part of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjacent part

55

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon

increased motility of the small or large intestine causing nausea, pain, anorexia, and trapping of gas throughout the intestinal tract

56

melena

abnormal black, tarry stool containing digested blood

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nausea and vomiting (N & V)

common symptoms in many GI disorders

58

obesity

Body Mass Index (BMI) of more than 30 using the formula: weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2)

59

oral leukoplakia

precancerous lesion in the mouth

60

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

61

peritonitis

inflammtion of the peritoneal cavity; maybe be due to chemical irritation or bacterial invasion

62

phenylketonuria

a congenital inability to metabolize phenylalanine, a component of protein; may lead to retardation

63

polyposis

the formation of numerous polyps (growth hanging from a think stalk)

64

pyloric stenosis

an obstruction of the pyloric orifice of the stomach, congenital or acquired

65

rectocele

hernia of the rectum through the vaginal floor

66

sialolith

salivary duct stone

67

ulcers

a local defect of the surface of an organ or tissue

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umbilical

protrusion of the abdominal contents through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus

69

anastomosis

surgical formation of a connection between two parts; ileorectal anastomosis connects the ileum and rectum after removal of the colon

70

appendectomy

excision of the appendix

71

biopsy

removal of tissue for microscopic diagnosis

72

bypass

a shunt, e.g., a surgically created pathway

73

cheiloplasty

surgical repair of a lip defect

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choecystectomy

excision of the gallbladder

75

choledochoduodenostomy

surgical formation of an opening into the duodenum that connects it with the common blue duct

76

colostomy

surgical creation of an opening (stoma) between the colon and the body surface

77

gastrectomy

excision of the stomach, may be partial or subtotal

78

herniorrhaphy/ileostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the ileum with a stoma on the abdominal wall

79

laparotomy

incision through any part of the abdominal wall

80

portacaval shunt

connecting the portal vein and inferior vena cava to bypass a cirrhotic liver

81

stomach stapling (gastric bypass)

part of the stomach stapled to permit passage of a small amount of food, used to treat gross obesity

82

vagotomy

cutting the vagus nerve to reduce stomach stimulation, used to treat an ulcer

83

barium swallow

also called upper GI series; the oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium to view the esophagus by x-ray, while swallowing, to detect abnormalities

84

biopsy

removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed for diagnosis

85

blood tests or laboratory tests

chemical analyses of various substances in the blod to make diagnoses. some tests evaluate electrolytes, albumin and bilirubin levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol, total protein, and serum glutamic - oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

86

cholangiography

x-ray examination of the bile ducts, using a radiopaque dye as a contrast medium

87

colonoscopy

endoscopic examination of the colon, either transabdominally during laparotomy, or transanally by means of a colonoscope

88

digital examination

insertion of the gloved finger into the rectum or vagina

89

esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

using endoscopes to examine esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

90

flat plate of abdomen

an x-ray film of the abdomen

91

fluroscopy

radiological technique to examine the function of an organ

92

gastrointestinal series (GIs)

an examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract using barium as the contrast medium for a series of x-ray films; also called a barium meal

93

gastroscopy

inspection of the stomach's interiors with a gastroscope

94

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

noninvasive scanning to visualize fluid, and soft and bone tissue; very precise and accurate

95

proctoscopy

inspection of the sigmoid and rectum with a proctoscope

96

scan

an image produced using a moving detector or a sweeping beam of radiation, as in scintiscanning, B-mode ultrasonography, scangraphy, or CAT (computerized axial tomography)

97

serum glutamic oxaleacetic transaminase (SGOT)

an enzyme in high concentration in liver cells; high amounts in the blood indicate disease of liver cells

98

stool sample or specimen

a small stool sample for laboratory study, e.g., occult blood, parasites

99

ultrasonography

using ultrasound to obtain a visual record of any organ

100

absorption

the uptake from the intestine of fluids, solutes, proteins, fats, and other nutrients into the intestinal wall cells, blood, lymph, or body fluids

101

anabolism

building up using nutrients (proteins) for growth and development

102

catabolism

burning nutrients: breakdown in the presence of oxygen

103

deciduous

primary (baby) teeth replaced by permanent

104

deglutition

the act of swallowing

105

digestion

the act of converting food and fluids into chemical substances that can be absorbed and assimilated

106

elimination

excreting solid waste (feces)

107

epiglottis

thing leaf-shaped structure posterior to root of tongue

108

excretion

excreting body solid and liquid waste (feces and urine)

109

incisors

front teeth used for biting, tearing

110

ingestion

taking food, liquids, drugs, etc., by mouth

111

mandible

lower jaw

112

mastication

chewing

113

maxilla

upper jaw

114

molars

crushing and grinding teeth

115

palate

roof of the mouth

116

papillae

small rough elevations on tongue and roof of mouth; contain taste buds

117

periodontal disease

group of inflammatory gum disorders

118

peristalsis

muscular movement of food and liquid through the GI tract

119

trachea

wide, short tube, commonly called the windpipe. starts below larynx and enters thoracic cavity

120

uvula

small cone-shaped tissue hanging from soft palate of the mouth

121

achalasia

decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus, along with constriction of the muscle between the esophagus and stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

122

anasarca

generalized massive edema

123

ascites

abnormal accumlation of (edematous) fluid within the perioneal cavity

124

buccal

pertaining to the cheek

125

cachexia

severe malnutrition and wasting, emaciation

126

dental caries

tooth decay formed from microorganisms maintained in the mouth

127

enema

introduction of fluid into the rectum to promote evacuation of feces or to administer nutrient or medicinal substances

128

enteropathy

a disease of the intestine

129

enzyme

a protein produced in a cell capable of facilitating a specific biologic or chemical reaction. enzymes perform this function without being destroyed or altered

130

fistula

an abnormal passage between two internal organs, or leading to the body surface

131

gamma globulins

substances containing antibodies; they provide passive immunity in some people against certain infectious diseases

132

gavage

forced feeding, especially through a tube passed into the stomach; common for premature infants, the unconscious, and the critically ill

133

glossal

pertaining to the tongue

134

hyperalimentation

an intravenous feeding program similar to total perenteral nutrition

135

lavage

washing out an organ, e.g., the stomach or bowel

136

lingual

pertaining to the tongue; sublingual means "under the tongue"

137

nasogastric (ng)

a soft flexible tube introduced through the nose into the stomach for gavage, lavage, or suction

138

NPO (nothing per os)

no food or fluid by mouth or other body orifice (os means any body orifice)

139

parotid

near the ear

140

peritoneum

membrane lining the abdominal walls and pelvis, cavities, and investing the contained viscera, the peritoneal cavity

141

stoma

"mouth"; an artificially created opening (e.g., in colostomy) on the surface of the abdomen

142

thrush

fungal infection of the mouth caused by Candida albicans resulting in painful creamy white raised patches of the tongue and oral mucosa

143

total parenteral nutrition

intensive intravenous feeding most often introduced through a subclavian vein

144

viscear

a large interior organ in a body cavity, especially the abdomen

145

volvulus

loop of bowel twisting on itself resulting in bowel obstruction