Chapter 19 - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Endocrine System Deck (53):
1

pituitary gland

also known as the hypophysis. located on the underside of the brain in a depression at the base of the skull and is protected by the brain above it and the nasal cavities below it. it is a very complex gland that secretes many hormones that affect body functions. it is often referred to as the master gland. it contains two major parts, the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary lobes

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thyroid

consisting of a right and left lobe, the thyroid gland is a u or h shaped gland located in front of the neck just below the larynx. the lobes are connected by a narrow piece of thyroid cartilage that produces the prominence on the neck known as the adams apple. the thyroid gland produces three hormones: thyroxian (helps maintain normal body metabolism), triiodthyronine (a chemically similar compound, helps regulate growth and development and control metabolism and body temperature), and calcitonin (regulates the level of calcium in the blood. it lowers the blood calcium level by inhibting the release of calcium from the bones by a negative feedback loop when blood calcium levels are high)

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parathyrooid

the parathyroid glands are four small modules of tissue embedded in the back side of the thyroid glands. they secrete a hormone known as parathyroid hormone or parathormone (PTH), which increases blood calcium levels

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adrenal

also called suprarenal galnds, the two adrenal glands sit one atop each kidney. each consists of two portions, the central region, or adrenal medula, and the outer region, or adrenal cortex. the adrenal cortex is the largest portion of the gland. it secretes three types of steroid hormones called corticosteriods. each has different functions (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, gonadocorticoids) the adrenal medulla, the inner portion of the adrenal gland, secretes two nonsteroid hormones called catecholamines. the two hormones, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), are the stress hormones that exert physiological changes during times of stress

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pancreas

an elongated structure located behind the stomach in the left upper quadrant. the specialized cells that produce hormones are called the islets of Langerans. these cells produce two hormones, insulin and glucagon. both play a role in glucose levels in the body. the islets of langerhans carry on the endocrine functions of the pancreas; other cells within the organ carry on its exocrine functions

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ovaries

two small glands located in the upper pelvic cavity, on either side of the uterine wall, near the fallopian tubes of the female. each of the pair is almond-shaped and held in place by ligaments. ovaries are the female sex glands, also known as female gonads. they produce mature ova as well as two hormones responsible for female sex characteristics and regulation of the menstrual cycle. the hormones are estrogen and progesterone

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testes

male gonads, also known as testicles, are two small ovoid glands suspended from the inguinal region of the male by the spermatic cord and surrounded by the scrotal sac. after descending from high in the abdominal cavity during fetal growth, they descend shortly before birth into the scrotum and remain there. testes are the primary organs of the male reproductive system. the testes produce male sperm cells and secret androgens, the male steroid hormone. they also produce testosterone, the male hormone necessary for secondary sex characteristics that appear in the male during puberty, such as growth of the beard and pubic hair, growth of the skeletal muscles, deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the testicles, penis, and scrotum. testosterone is also responsible for sperm maturation

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pineal

the pineal gland is a cone-shaped stucture attached by a stalk to the posterior wall of the cerebrum. its exact function is unclear, but it is thought to function as a light receptor and to play a part in regulation of the "biological clock" (patterns of sleeping, eating, and reproduction). it secretes melatonin, the hormone believed to induce sleep

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thymus

a single gland located behind the sternum in the mediastinum. it resembles a lymph gland in structure, as it is part of the lymphatic system, but it is also a hormone-secreting endocrine gland. the thymus is large in children, but shrinks with age until there is only a trace of active tissue in older adults. the gland secretes thymosin and thymopitin, which stimulate the production of T cells, the specialized lymphocytes involved in the immune response

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acromegaly

abnormal enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton, nose, jaws, fingers, and toes; caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after maturity

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Addison's disease

bronzelike pigmentation of the skin, severe prostration, progressive anemina, low blood pressure, diarrhea, and digestive disturbance, caused by adrenal hypofunction

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adrenalectomy

surgical excision of the adrenal gland

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adrenogenital syndrome

group of symptoms associated with alterations in sex characteristics due to abnormally increased production of androgens

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adrenomegaly

enlargement of the adrenal gland

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cretinism

arrested physical and mental development owing to congenital lack of thyroid secretion

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Cushing's disease

obesity, weakness, moon face, edema, and high blood pressure; caused by hyperfunction of the adrenals

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diabetes insipidus

a condition caused by insufficient excretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the posterior pituitary gland. deifcient ADH causes the kidney tubules to fail to reabsorb needed water and salts. clinical symptoms include polyuria (increased urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst). the person will complain of excessive thirst and drink large volumes of water. the urine will be very dilute with a low specific gravity. synthetic preparations of ADH are administered as treatment for diabetes insipidus

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diabetes mellitus

inability to metabolize sugar because of abnormal insulin function; high blood sugar, excessive urination, thirst, hunger, emaciation, and weakness are cardinal symptoms of the most severe type (type 1)

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exophthalic goiter

toxic goiter; Graves' disease; protrusion of the eyeballs, swollen neck, weight loss, shaking, and mental deterioration are symptoms

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gestational diabetes

a condition in which pregnant woman sometimes show abnormal glucose levels during the course of pregnancy

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goiter (simple)

enlargement of the thyroid gland; swelling in the front part of the neck, mostly caused by dietary deficiency of iodine

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Hashimoto's disease

a progressive disease of the thyroid gland with degeneration of its epithelium and replacement by lymphoid and fibrous tissue

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hyperglycemia

blood sugar (glucose) level above normal

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hyperthryroidism

excessive activity of the thyroid gland

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hypothroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland. shortage of thyroid hormones causes a low body metabolism because of the body's reduced use of oxygen. any one of several conditions can produce hypothroidism, such as endemic goiter, thyroidectomy, faulty hormone synthesis, and congenital thyroid defects, a condition that is called cretinism, and which results in a child lacking normal mental and physical growth

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myxedema

a dry, waxy type of swelling with deposits of mucin in the skin, swollen lips, and thickened nose. myxedema is the advanced form of hypothroidism in adults

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ovariorrhexis

rupture of an ovary

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pancreaticogastrostomy

anastomosis of the pancreatic duct to the stomach

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pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas due to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue by its own enzymes

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pheochromocytoma

"pheochromo" means dusky color; tumor of the medulla characterized by hypertension, weight loss, and personality changes

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Simmond's disease

generalized hypopituitarism owning to absence or damage of the pituitary gland; exhaustion, emaciation, and cachexia are symptoms

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tetany

sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints, muscle twitching, cramps, and convulsion; caused by abnormal calcium metabolism

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thyroidectomy

surgical excision of the thyroid gland

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thyrotherapy

treatment with thyroid preparations

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thyrotomy

surgical division of thyroid cartilage

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acidosis

a pathologic condition caused by accumulation of acid in, or loss of base from, the body

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anorexia

lack or loss of appetite for food

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cachexia

malnutrition, wasting, and emaciation

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cataract

clouding of the eye lens

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convulstions

involuntary muscular contractions

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diaphoresis

profuse perspiration

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emaciation

excessive leanness; a wasted condition

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endocrine

ductless gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream

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exocrine

a ducted gland that secretes into various organs

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gangrene

death of tissue from lack of circulation and consequent loss of nutrients

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gland

an organ that secretes a metabolic substance may be endocrine or exocrine

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hypoglycemia

blood sugar level is below normal

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hypoglycemic agent

drug for the diabetic to decrease the amount of glucose in the blood

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hypophysectomy

excisions of the pituitary gland

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insulin

a protein hormone produced by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. it is secreted into the blood in response to a rise in concentration of blood glucose. insulin promotes the entrance of glucose from the blood into cells. a diabetic patient is deficient in insulin or insulin receptors leading to a rise in blood glucose

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ketosis

accumulation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids; a complication in some diabetic patients

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ketoacidosis

accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood that results in metabolic acidosis (ketosis and ketoacidosis are often used interchangeably)

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neuropathy

any functional disturbances and/or pathologic changes in the peripheral nervous system; a complication in some diabetic patients