Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Cardiovascular System Deck (182):
1

heart

the organ of circulation of the blood

2

atrium (pl., atria)

one of the two (left and right) upper chambers of the heart; also known as the auricle. these upper chambers collect blood

3

ventricle

one of the two (left and right) lower chambers of the heart. they pump blood from the heart

4

apex

the pointed end (of the heart)

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myocardium

middle, thickest layer of the heart wall, made of cardiac muscle

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tricuspid

having three points or cusps, situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle

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pulmonary semilunar

pertaining to the lung and resembling a crescent valve; located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

8

mitral

shaped like a miter, also called bicuspid valve; situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle

9

aortic

located between the left ventricle and aorta

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septum

a diving wall between the right and left sides of the heart

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pericardium

the firbroserous sac enclosing the heart

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endocardium

lining membrane of the heart's cavities

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epicardium

the visceral pericardium

14

sinoatrial node or SA node

atypical muscle fibers at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. it originates the cardic rhythm and is therefore called pacemaker of the heart

15

atrioventricular node

Purkinje fibers beneath the endocardium of the right atrium in the septum

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bundle of His

cardiac muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles of the heart

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pulmonary

movement of blood through the lungs and the pulmonary artery

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systemic

pertaining to movement of blood to the body as a whole

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portal

circulation of blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen though the portal vein to the liver

20

aorta

the great artery arising from the left ventricle; largest artery

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coronary arteries

arteries from the base of the aorta that supply the heart muscle with blood

22

vena cava

largest vein. inferior: the venous trunk for the lower viscera. superior: the venous trunk draining blood from head, neck, upper limbs and thorax

23

granulocytes

any cells containing granules, especially a granular leukocyte; formed in the bone marrow. there are three types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophis

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neutrophils

having a nucleus with three to five lobes and cytoplasm containing very fine granules. neutrophils defend the body by ingesting invaders. type I WBC

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eosinophils

having a nucleus with two lobes and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules. maybe be associated with allergy. type-2 WBC

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basophils

any structure cells staining readily with basic dyes; functions unknown. type-3 WBC

27

agranulocytes

nongranular leukocytes, produced by the spleen and lymph nodes. there are two types

28

lymphocytes

participate in immunity; produced by the spleen and lymph nodes. type-4 WBC

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monocytes

destroy foreign invaders in the body. type-5 WBC

30

fibrinogen

promotes blood clotting

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thrombocytes

blood platelets

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plasma

the fluid portion of the blood or lymph, without the cells, amber-colored. when whole blood is undisturbed in a tube, clotting cells settle in the bottom, the clear plasma is on top

33

serum

the clear portion of the blood separated from solid elements; plasma minus fibrinogen

34

platelet

a disk-shaped structure in the blood, for blood coagulation; also called thrombocyte

35

reticulocytes

immature red blood cells, in the bone marrow

36

Landsteiner types

refers to the type of red blood cell; a, b, ab, and o

37

universal donor

a person with group o blood; frequently used in emergency transfusion

38

universal recipient

able to receive blood from any type; group ab

39

type and crossmatch (x match)

determination of the compatibility of the blood of a doner and that of a recipient before transfusion by placing the donor's cells in the recipient's serum and the recipient's cells in the donor's serum; absence of agglutination, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity indicates compatibility

40

Rh factors

a genetically determined antigen, present on the surface of erthrocytes. there are at least eight variations. it is named for rhesus monkeys used in early experimens. one rh factor present in blood means it is rh positive; if no factor is found the blood is rh negative

41

hypertension

persistently high arterial blood pressure; causes may or may not be identifiable

42

sphygmomanometer

an instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure

43

systolic pressure

the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles. the top number in a blood pressure reading

44

diastolic pressure

the dilation, or the period of the dilation of the heart, especially of the ventricles. the bottom number in a blood pressure reading

45

normal BP

an acceptable range for systolic pressure is less than or equal to 120, and for diastolic less than 80

46

anemia

reduction below normal of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood; a symptom of various disorders

47

aneurysm

a sac formed by localized dilation of an artery or vein

48

angina pectoris

pain in the chest, caused by decreased supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; can be precipitated by increased activity or stress

49

arrhythmia

variation from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat

50

arteriosclerosis

thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls, slowing the flow of blood

51

asystole

cardiac standstill; no heart beat

52

atherosclerosis

a form of arteriosclerosis in which fats (e.g., cholesterol are deposited on arterial walls

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cardiac arrest

cessation of heart function

54

coarctation

stricture or narrowing of a vessel

55

Congenital defects

defects present at birth

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cyanosis

dark, slightly bluish discoloration of the skin due to reduced hemoglobin in the blood

57

patent ductus arteriosus

birth defect; duct with an abnormal open lumen in the ductus arteriosus

58

tetralogy of Fallot

birth defect consisting of pulmonic stenosis, interventricular septal defect, hypertrophy of right ventricle, and transposition of the aorta

59

congestive heart failure (CHF)

defective blood pumping system, marked by breathlessness and abnormal retention of sodium and water

60

embolism

the sudden blocking of an artery by an embolus

61

embolus

a foreing object (i.e., air, fat, tissue, or blood) brought by the blood and forced into a smaller vessel, thus obstructing the circulation

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endocarditis

exudative and proliferative inflammation of the endocardium

63

fibrillation

a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction, caused by spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers

64

coronary thrombosis

thrombosis of a coronary artery, often leading to myocardial infarction

65

infarction

a localized area of ischemic necrosis owing to occlusion of the arterial supply

66

myocardial infarction

gross necrosis of the myocardium, caused by decreased bloody supply to the area

67

occlusion

obstruction, a closing off of the coronary arteries, leading to a heart attack

68

heart block

impairment of conduction in heart excitation; often applied specifically to arterioventricular heart block

69

heart murmur

an auscultatory sound (soft, blowing); a periodic sound of short duration of cardiac origin; may be due to an incompetent valve

70

hemophilia

a hereditary hemorrhagic condition caused by lack of one or more clotting factors

71

Hodgkin's disease

painless progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen and lymphoid tissue; symptoms include anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, fever, itching, night sweats, and anemia

72

ischemia

deficiency of blood in a part; due to spasm of blood vessel, temporarily reducing blood flow

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leukemia

a malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, e.g., abnormal proliferation and development of leukocytes and related cells in blood and bone marrow

74

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium

75

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

76

plaque

a deposit of fatty material in the artery (atheroscloerosis)

77

rheumatic heart disease

the most important manifestation and sequel to rheumatic fever, consisting chiefly of valvular deformities

78

stroke (cerebrovascular accident [CVA])

a sudden and acute vascular lesion of the brain caused by hemorrhage, embolism, thrombosis, or rupturing blood vessels

79

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation

80

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

brief interruption of circulation to a portion of the brain owning to a vascular spasm, causing temporary loss of function. a precursor to CVA

81

varicose veins

a dilated, tortuous vein, usually in the leg, caused by a defective venous valve

82

angiography

x-ray technique using an injected contrast medium to visualize the heart and blood vessels

83

angiplasty

surgical or percutaneous reconstruction of blood vessels

84

balloon angioplasty

insertion of a balloon to dilate a vessel (see PTCA)

85

anticoagulant

any substance that removes or prevents blood clotting

86

antihypertensive drug

a drug that reduces or eliminates high blood pressure

87

auscultation

the act of listening for sounds within the body chiefly to ascertain the condition of the thoracic or abdominal viscera; may be performed with the unaided ear or with a stethoscope

88

bradycardia

slowness of the heartbeat, as evidenced by a pulse rate of <60

89

bypass

a surgically created route to a circumvent the normal path

90

cardiac catheterization

a long, fine catheter is navigated through a peripheral blood vessel into the chambers of the heart using x-ray visualization as a guide

91

cardiac enzyme test

tests on drawn blood samples to determine if there is damage to the myocardial muscle

92

collateral circulation

circulation by secondary channels after obstruction of the principal channel supplying the heart

93

commissurotomy

surgical incision of a defective heart valve to increase the size of the orifice; commonly done to separate adherent, thickened leaflets of a stenotic mitral valve

94

computed axial tomography (CAT scan or CT scan)

diagnostic x-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce cross-section images of the body. the x-ray feeds the images into a computer that produced cross-sectional pictures

95

coronary artery bypass graft

use of a leg vein or synthetic material to substitute for an occluded artery in the heart

96

digitalize

to adminster digitalis in a dosage schedule designed to produce and then maintain optimal heart contraction with nominal side effects

97

diuretic

an agent that promotes removal of excess interstitial fluid and results in increased urine secretion

98

Doppler

a device for measuring blood flow that transmits and reflects sound waves

99

dyscrasia

any abnormal condition of the blood

100

echocardiography

diagnostic procedure using ultrasound waves to study that structure and motion of the heart and to detect changes in some heart disorders

101

electrocardiogram

the record produced by electrocardiography; abbreviated ECG or EKG

102

endarterectomy

excision of thickened areas of the innermost coat of an artery to increase blood flow

103

exercise stress test

test widely used to assess cardiac function by means of subjecting the patient to controlled amounts of physical stress, such as the treadmill, pedaling a stationary bike or climbing stairs

104

hemoglobin

the oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells; it contain iron and copper

105

heparin

a substance that counteracts blood clotting, existing both as a natural substance in the blood and as a drug

106

Holter monitor

a portable device for monitoring blood pressure or heart/respiratory rate, e.g., ECG

107

low-salt diet

common term for a diet low in sodium content to reduce body-water level; correctly termed sodium-restricted diet

108

lumen

the cavity or channel within a tube, e.g., a blood vessel

109

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

noninvasive procedure that uses strong magnetic fields and radio frequency waves to produce images of soft tissue, heart, blood vessels, and brain. it can also show the heartbeat and blood blow. used to detect possible tumors and other pericardial conditions

110

pacemaker

the which sets the pace at which a phenomenon occurs; often used alone to indicate the natural cardiac pacemaker or an artificial cardiac pacemaker

111

phlebotomy

incision of a vein

112

positron emission tomorgraphy (PET)

computerized x-ray technique using radioactive substances, which are given by injection, to measure blood flow and metabolic activity of the heart and blood vessels. the radiation emitted is measured by the PET camera

113

PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty)

dilation of a blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted through the skin and into the chosen vessel and then passed through the luman of the vessel to the site of the lesion, where the balloon is inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall

114

serum lipid test

tests on drawn blood samples to measure the amount of cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoprotein substances in the blood

115

sinus rhythm

the normal heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial (SA) node

116

tachycardia

abnormally rapid heart rate

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thallium stress test

tallium injections are given intravenously in conjunction with the stress test to determine if there are changes in coronary blood flow during exercise. changes may be indicative of ischemia, severe coronary narrowing, or infarction

118

thrombolysis

injection of a drug to dissolve a blood clot and restore blood flow in a coronary artery to prevent heart damage during a heart attack

119

vasodilator

an agent that dilates blood vessels

120

vasopressor

an agent that constricts blood vessels

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venipuncture

puncture of a vein with a needle to withdraw blood or infuse fluid

122

ALL

acute lymphocytic leukemia

123

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

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AML

acute myeloblastic leukemia (myeloblast: a primitive bone marrow WBC)

125

ASD

arterial septal defect

126

ASHD

ateriosclerotic heart disease

127

BASO

basophil (type of WBC)

128

BBB

bundle branch block

129

BP

blood pressure

130

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

131

CBC

complete blood count

132

CCU

coronary care unit

133

CHF

congestive heart failure

134

CO2

carbon dioxide

135

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

136

CVA

cerebrovascular accident

137

DOE

dyspnea on exertion

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DVT

deep vein thrombosis

139

ECG, EKG

electrocardiogram

140

ECHO

echocardiogram

141

Eos

eosinophil (type of WBC)

142

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

143

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

144

Lymph

lymphocyte (type of WBC)

145

MI

myocardial infarction

146

Mono

monocyte (type of WBC); mono can also mean mononucleosis

147

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

148

MVP

mitral valve prolapse

149

O2

oxygen

150

PMI

point of maximal impulse (of heart on chest wall)

151

PMN

polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)

152

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angiplasty

153

PVC

premature ventricular contractions

154

RBC

red blood cell, red blood (cell) count

155

SA

sinoatrial

156

Segs

white blood cells with segmented nuclei

157

TIA

transient ischemic attack

158

VSD

ventricular septal defect

159

VT

ventricular tachycardia

160

WBC

white blood cell; white blood (cell) count

161

adenoids

masses of lymph tissue near the opening into the pharynx

162

antibodies

substances produced by the body in response to foreign organisms

163

capillaries

smallest of the lymph vessels, they transport interstitial fluid back to the blood via large lymph vessels

164

ducts

the largest of the lymph vessels, point of entry to blood circulation

165

fluid

interstitial fluid in the lymph vessels

166

nodes

collections of lymphatic tissue

167

lyphocytes

leukocytes originating from stem cells and developing in the bone marrow

168

macrophage

large cell involved in defending against infection; found in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lungs, brain, and spinal cord

169

phagocytes

cells that engulf and destroy bacteria

170

spleen

large organs located behind the stomach that filters blood to remove pathogens and serves as a blood reservoir

171

T cells

important part of the immune response; provide defense against disease by attacking foreign and abnormal cells

172

thymus gland

endocrine gland that stimulates red bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes (T cells)

173

tonsils

three masses of lymphatic tissue that help protect against harmful substances from gaining entry through the mouth and nose

174

carinii pneumonia

pneumonia caused by a common worldwide parasite to which most people have natural immunity

175

hypersplenism

enlargement of the spleen; splenomegaly

176

Kaposi's sarcoma

malignant tumor of the blood vessels associated with AIDS

177

lymphadenopathy

any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels

178

lymphoma

malignant tumor of the lymph nodes and lymph tissue

179

mononeucleosis

benign self-limiting acute infection of B lymphocytes usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus

180

pneumonocystic pneumonia

a rare form of pneumonia in AIDS patients

181

sarcoidosis

a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by small rounded lesions forming on the spleen, lymph nodes and other organs

182

sarcoma

a malignant neoplasm of the connective and supportive tissues of the body