Chapter 20 - Cancer Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 - Cancer Medicine Deck (101):
1

polyp, papilloma

any benign tumor projecting from surface epithelium

2

root word + oma (suffix)

a benign tumor. root ward designates primary tissue of origin

3

carcinoma

malignant tumor arising from surface, glandular, or parenchymal epithelium (but not endotehlium or mesothelium)

4

sarcoma

malignant tumor of any primary tissue other than surface, glandular, and parenchymal epithelium

5

leukemia

neopasm of blood cells

6

aden/o

gland

7

angi/o

vessels

8

chondr/o

cartilage

9

fibr/o

fibrous tissue

10

hemangi/o

blood vessels

11

lymphangi/o

lymph vessels

12

lip/o

fat

13

my/o

muscle

14

neur/o

nerve

15

oste/o

bone

16

lymphoid tumors

all neoplasms of lymphoid tissue are called lymphomas and are malignant: Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

17

skin tumors

pigment-producing cells of the epidermis
benign: birthmark
malignant: melanoma or malignant melanoma
keratinocytes
benign: basal cell carcinoma
malignant: squamous cell carcinoma (sometimes metastasizes)

18

teratoma tumors

derived from cells tat have potential to differentiate into different types of tissue (bone, muscle, glands, epithelium, brain tissue, hair) and may be either benign or malignant. a common type of cystic benign tertoma arising in the ovary is usually called a dream cyst

19

embryonic tumors

derived from perisisting groupd of embryonic cells of the brain, retina, adrenal gland, kidney, liver, or genital tract. neamed from the site of origin, with the suffix "-blastoma" added; medulloblastoma: medulla of the brain; retinoblastoma: retina of the eye; Wilm's tumor: kidney, exception in naming

20

noninfiltrating (in situ) carcinoma

noninfiltrating tumors are common in many locations, including the breast, cervix, colon, sking, and urinary tract. in situ carcinoma can be completely cured by surgical excision

21

precanerous conditions

refers to conditions that have a high likelihood of developing into cancer: skin cancer
actinic keratoses
lentigo meligna
oral cancer
leukoplakis
membranes of the mouth as a results of exposure to tobacco tars from smoking or use of smokeless tobacco

22

aspirate

withdrawal of fluid from a lump, often a cyst

23

biopsy

removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope

24

bronchoscopy

scope inserted through the nose or mouth to examine the inside of the trachea, bronchi, and lung

25

colonoscopy

scope inserted into the rectum to examine the colon

26

cystoscopy

scope inserted into the urethra to examine the bladder

27

laryngoscopy

examination of the larynx (voice box) with a mirror (indirect laryngoscopy) or with a larngoscope (direct laryngoscopy)

28

signoidoscopy

scope inserted into the signoid part of the colon. also called proctosigmoidoscopy

29

acid phosphatase

cancer of the prostate
may be used to monitor response to treatment of recurrence.

30

AFP

hepatocellular carcinoma germ cell tumors
used to monitor treatment response

31

CA 19-9

cancers of the pancreas, colon, cervix, and ovary
a relatively specific tumor-associated antigen

32

CA 125

epithelial ovarian cancer
a tumor-associated antigen that might be used in conjunction with vaginal ultrasound for screening

33

CEA

cancers of the pancreas colon, breast, lung, stomach, ovary
high levels correlate with high tumor burden

34

HCG/AFP

malignant germ cell tumors originating from ovaries or sperm; ovarian or uterine cancer in woman and testicular cancer in men
return to normal indicates cure

35

monoclonal immunoglobulins

multiple myeloma
malignant clone can b IgG, IgM, or IgA

36

PSA

cancer of the prostate
used particularly to monitor response to treatment

37

barium enema

cancer of the colon
series of x-rays of the colon taken after the person is given an enema that contains barium. barium outlines the intestines on the x-rays

38

computed axial tomorgraphy (CAT, CT, ACTA)

cross-section images of internal structures
x-ray contrast dye with the creation of pictures by a computer linked to an x-ray machine; high specificity, especially brain tumors

39

intravenous pyelogram or intravenous pyelography (IVP)

cancer of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
dye is injected into a blood vessel and concentrated in the urine to visualize the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

40

lymphangiography

lymph node involvement, especially Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, cancer of testes
blue dye, injected into lymphatic channel , visualizes abdominal lymph nodes

41

radionuclide scan

shows function and size of specific organ
used fro staging because of specificity; radioactive material is injected or swallowed and radioactivity measured with a scanner

42

ultrasound

visualizes structural changes, mass
uses high-frequency sound waves

43

bone-marrow aspirate

tumor involvement, especially by leukemia or lymphoma
needle aspirate of marrow from iliac crest or sternum

44

estrogn/progesterone receptors

cancer of the breast
cells taken from breast tissue; defines certain tumors that may be more responsive to hormonal therapy

45

Pap smear

cancer of the cervix or uterus
cells obtained by swab of vagina, endocervical canal, and exocervix

46

sentinel lymph node biopsy

tumor metastasia, for example, breast cancer
dye or radioactive substance injected near a tumor flows into the sentinel lymph node(s) - the first lymph node(s); that cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor

47

sputum cytology

bronchogenic cancer
examination of mucus coughed up from the lungs; used to detect abnormal lung cells

48

stool guaiac

cancer of the colon/rectum
a test to check for blood in stool (fecal refers to stool, occult means hidden)

49

autologous bone marrow transplantation

a procedure in which bone marrow is removed from a person, stored, and then given back to the person following intensive treatment

50

BCG vaccine

an anticancer drug, bacille calmette-Guerin (BCG), that activates the immune system

51

colony-stimulating factors

substances that stimulate the production of blood cells; granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF); granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF)

52

peripheral stem cell transplantation

replacing blood-forming cells destroyed by cancer treatment. immature blood cells (stem cells) are given after treatment to help the bone marrow recover and produce healthy blood cells. sources of stem cells are bone marrow and are allogeneic, autologous, or syngeneic

53

allogeneic

stem cells donated by someone else

54

autologous

stem cells removed from a person, stored, and then given back to the person following intensive treatment

55

syngeneic

stem cells donated by an identical twin

56

external

uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer

57

internal

given internally by placing radioactive material that is sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters directly into or near the tumor

58

systemic radiation therapy

giving a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that circulates throughout the body

59

cystectomy

surgical removal of the bladder

60

cryosurgery

treatment performed with an instrument that freezes and destroys abnormal tissues

61

fulguration

destroying tissue using an electric current

62

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus

63

laryngectomy

an operation to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box)

64

laser

a device that concentrates light into an intense, narrow beam used to cut or destroy tissue. it is used in microsurgery, photodynamic therapy, and for a variety of diagnostic purposes

65

lumectomy

surgery to remove the tumor and a small amount of normal tissue around it

66

mastectomy

surgery to remove the breast (or as much of the breast tissue as possible)

67

modified radical mastectomy

surgical procedure in which the breast, some of the lymph nodes in the armpit, and the lining over the chest muscles are removed

68

orchiectomy

surgical removal of one or both testicles

69

pneumonectomy

surgical removal of an entire lung

70

prostatectomy

surgical removal of part or all of the prostate

71

salpingo-oophorectomy

surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries

72

antiandrogens

drugs used to block the production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones

73

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist

a substance that closely resembles luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), which controls the recretion of sex hormones; given to decrease secretion of sex hormones

74

palliative

cytoreduction; oncologic emergencies; neurosurgical procedures/pain control; nutritional support

75

prophylactic

excision of premalignant lesions

76

primary/definitive

local excision; en bloc dissection

77

rehabilitative

cosmetic and functional restoration

78

resection of metastases

lung; liver

79

supportive

insertion of access devices such as a porta catheter for infusion of drugs for chemotherapy; radiation implants

80

adenocarcinoma

cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs

81

atypical hyperplasia

benign (noncancerous) condition in which cells have abnormal features and are increased in number

82

benign

not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body

83

cancer

a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body

84

carcinogen

any substance that causes cancer

85

carcinoma

cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs

86

cyst

a sac or capsule filled with fluid

87

ductal carcinoma in situ

abnormal cells that involve only the lining of a duct. the cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast

88

epidermoid carcinoma

a type of cancer in which the cells are flat and look like fish scales. also called squamous cell carcinoma

89

familial polyposis

an inherited condition in which numerous polyps (tissue masses) develop on the inside walls of the colon and rectum. it increases the risk for colon cancer

90

fibroid

a benign smooth muscle tumor, usually in the uterus or gastrointestinal tract. also called leiomyoma

91

hyperplasia

an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue

92

lage cell carcinomas

a group of lung cancers in which cells are large and look abnormal when viewed under a microscope

93

lobular carcinoma in situ

abnormal cells found in the lobules of the breast. this condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. however, having lobular carcinoma in situ increases one's risk of developing breast cancer in either breast

94

malignant

cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body

95

nonsmall cell lung cancer

a group of lung cancers that include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma

96

oat cell cancer

a type of lung cancer in which the cells look like oats when viewed under a microscope. also called small cell lung cancer

97

polyp

a growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane

98

sarcoma

a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue

99

small cell lung cancer

a type of lung cancer in which the cells appear small and round when viewed under the microscope. also called oat cell lung cancer

100

squamous cell carcinoma

cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells resembling fish scales. squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts. also called epidermoid carcinoma

101

tumor

an abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. tumers may either be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous)