Chapter 17 - Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Musculoskeletal System Deck (145):
1

appendicular

an appendage; limbs

2

axis (n.) (axial [adj.])

a line that passes through the center of the body traversing skull, thorax, and vertebral column

3

ethmoid

the light and spongy bone at the base of the cranium; the upper nasal bone between the eyes

4

frontal

forehead

5

mandible

large bone constituting the lower jaw

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maxilla

one of a pair of large bones forming the upper jaw

7

occipital

the cuplike bone at the back of the skull

8

parietal

bone of the skull (top of the head)

9

sphenoid

bone at the base of the skull, anterior to the temporal bones

10

temporal

large bones forming part of the temples

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turbinate

cone-shaped nasal bone

12

clavicle

a long, curved, horizontal bone just above the first rib (collar bone)

13

femur

the thigh bone, extending form the pelvis to the knee

14

fibula and tibia

the fibula is the smallest of the bones of the leg; the tibia is the second longest bone of the skeleton, located at the medial side of the leg

15

humerus

the upper-arm bone, consisting of a body, a head, and the condyle

16

radius and ulna

the radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm; the ulna is the bone on the medial or little-finger side of the forearm, lying parallel with the radius

17

scapula

shoulder blade

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sternum

the elongated, flattened bone forming the middle portion of the thorax (breastbone)

19

vertebral column

the flexible structure that forms the longitudinal axis (backbone) of the skeleton; it consists of 26 separate vertebrae arranged in a straight line from the base of the skull to the coccyx (tailbone)

20

hyoid

point of attachment for muscles of head and throat

21

lachrymal

two bones that house the tear ducts

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mandible

large bone constituting the lower jaw

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maxilla

one of a pair of large bones forming the upper jaw

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nasal

two bones that shape the nose

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occipital

the cuplike bone at the back of the skull

26

palatine

forms the hard palate (roof of the mouth)

27

parietal

parietal bone of the skull (top of the head)

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sphenoid

bone at the base of the skull, anterior to the temporal bones

29

temporal

large bones forming part of the temples

30

turbinate

cone-shaped nasal bone

31

vomer

lower part of the nasal septum

32

zygomatic

two bones, one on each side of the face, which form the high part of the cheek bones and outer eye socket

33

ball and socket

a joint in which the globular head of an articulating bone is received into a cuplike cavity, e.g., the hip and shoulder

34

hinge

hinge joint, e.g., elbow, knees, and fingers

35

intervertebral

the fibrous substance between the disks of the spinal vertebrae

36

aponeurosis

a flattened tendon, connecting a muscle with the parts it moves

37

bursa (pl., bursae)

a fluid-filled sac located in tissues to reduce friction

38

fascia (pl., fasciae)

a sheet of fibrous tissue holding muscle fibers together

39

interphalangeal

between two contiguous joints and phalanges, e.g., between the fingers and toes

40

lamina (pl., laminae)

the flattened part of the vertebral arch (thinnest part of a vertebra)

41

ligament

a band of fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages

42

meniscus (pl., menisci)

a crescent-shaped fibrocartilage in the knee joint

43

sutures

lines of junction between the bones of the skull

44

synovial fluid

the transparent, viscid fluid found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths

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tendon

a fibrous cord of connective tissue attaching the muscle to bone or cartilage

46

theca

a case or sheath of a tendon

47

acetabulum

the cup-shaped cavity (socket) receiving the head of the femur

48

foramen (pl., foramina)

holes in a bone for large vessels and nerves to pass through

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fossa (pl., fossae)

a hollow or depressed area

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groove

a narrow, linear hollow or depression in bone

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malleolus

a rounded process, such as the protuberance on either side of the ankle joint, at the lower end of the fibula or the tibia

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olecranon

bony projection of the ulna at the elbow

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prominence

protrusion or projection

54

sinus

one definition is a recess, cavity, or channel, such as one in bone

55

tuberosity

an elevation or protuberance, especially of a bone

56

biceps brachii

muscle extending from scapula to radius. used to flex lower arm and turn palm of hand upward

57

buccinator

fleshy part of the cheek. used to smile, blow outward, and whistle

58

cardiac muscle

specialized muscle found in the walls of the heart. involuntary muscles, controlled by the ANS

59

deltoid

muscle covering the shoulder joint. extends from clavicle and scapula to humerus. extends the arm

60

gastrocnemius

main calf muscle. attaches to heel hone

61

gluteus maximus

fleshy part of the buttocks. extentds from ilium to femur. adducts and rotates thigh laterally

62

hamstring

muscle in posterior thigh used for flexing, as in kneeling, and for extension

63

latissimus dorsi

muscle extending from lower vertebrae to humerus. used for swinging the arms

64

masseter

muscle at angle of jaw. used for biting and chewing

65

orbicularis occuli

body of the eyelid, opens and close the eye, wrinkles forehead

66

orbicularis oris

muscle surrounding the mouth. closes and purses the lips

67

pectoralis major

large, fan-shaped muscle across front of the chest. adducts, flexes, and rotates the arms inward

68

quadriceps femoris

anterior thigh muscle. part of a five-muscle group that extends the thigh

69

skeletal muscles

also called striated (striped) or voluntary muscles. muscles attached to skeletal bones except for face, eyes, tongue, and throat. under concious control

70

smooth muscles

muscles found in the wall of the stomach, intestine, blood vessels, and respiratory tract. also called involuntary or visceral muscle (not under concious control)

71

sternomastoid

muscle extending from sternum to side of the neck. used for turning the head

72

temporal

muscle above the ear. used for opening and closing the jaw

73

trapexius

triangular muscle extending from back of shoulder to clavical. used to raise shoulders

74

triceps bracii

muscle extending from scapula to ulna. responsible for adducting the elbow

75

flexion

bending

76

extension

the movement by which the two ends of any jointed part are drawn away from each other; straightening

77

adduction

to draw toward the axial (median) line of a limb

78

abduction

to draw away from the axial (median) line of a limb

79

pronation

to prone position (palm down, face down)

80

supination

palm or face upward

81

proximal

nearest to a point of reference or origin

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distal

farthest from any point of reference or origin

83

contracture

permanent contraction of a muscle

84

muscle atrophy

wasting away of muscle from disuse

85

muscle hypertrophy

muscle enlargement from overuse

86

muscle tone

normal degree of vigor and tension in a muscle; muscles partially contracted

87

paralysis

loss of muscular contraction because of nerve damage

88

paresis

slight or incomplete paralysis

89

fracture

the breaking of a bone; there are many types

90

skull fracture

a fracture of the bony structure of the head

91

torn ligament, tendon, or cartilage

a complete or partial tear of a ligament, tendon, or cartilage; common sports injuries

92

subluxation

partial dislocation

93

spondylolisthesis

forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower segment; a type of dislocation

94

arthritis

inflammation of a joint; there are 4 common types

95

burstitis

inflammation of a bursa

96

carpal tunnel syndrome

a common painful disorder of the wrist and hand, caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist

97

collagen disease

a group of diseases with widespread pathologic changes in connective tissue, e.g., lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis

98

gout

a hereditary form of arthritis caused by accumulation of uric acid crystals, especially in the great toe

99

herniated nucleus pulposus

a rupture of the fibrocartilage surrounding an intervertebral disk, releasing the nucleus pulposus that cushions the vertebrae above and below

100

kyphosis

humpback or hunchback; a spinal deformity

101

Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease

osteochondrosis of the head of the femur in children

102

lordosis

forward curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback

103

lupus erythematosus (LE)

see systemic lupus erythematosus

104

muscular dystrophy

genetic diseases with progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles

105

myasthenia gravis

lack of muscle strength

106

myositis

inflammation of a voluntary muscle

107

Osgood-Schlatter disease

inflammation of the tibial tubercle caused by chronic irritation and seen primarily in muscular, athletic adolescents; characterized by swelling and tenderness over the tibial tubercle that increases with exercise

108

osteochondritis

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

109

osteochondrosis

disease of the bone and cartilage

110

osteomalacia

softening of the bones resulting from vitamin D deficiency

111

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and marrow caused by bacterial invasion

112

osteoporosis

porous condition of the bones; occurs primarily in postmenopausal women

113

rheumatism

disorders marked by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of the connective tissue structures, especially the joints and related structures, and attended by pain, stiffness, or limitation of motion

114

rickets

vitamin D deficiency, especially in infancy and childhood, marked by bending and distortion of the bones

115

sarcoma (osteogenic)

a malignant tumor of bone

116

scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine

117

spina bifida

a congenital defect in the spine

118

spondylitis (ankylosing)

inflammation of the vertebrae, commonly progressing to eventual fusion of the involved joints

119

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

a chronic inflammatory disease affecting many systems of the body

120

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

121

amputation

removal of a limb or other appendage of the body

122

arthrocentesis

puncture of a joint cavity to remove fluid

123

arthroscopy

examination of the interior of a joint with an endoscope

124

arthrotomy

surgical creation of an opening into a joint, such as for drainage

125

electrical stimulation

a process used to heal fractures more quickly

126

electromyogram (electromyography)

the film record made and the study of muscular contraction

127

external fixation

the process of making a bone immovable

128

fracture reduction

the correction of a fracture, luxation, or hernia

129

laminectomy with disectomy

excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra;excision of a intervertebral disk

130

meniscectomy

excision of a meniscus, e.g., of the knee joint

131

myelogram

the film produced by radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a dye into the spinal cavity

132

myogram

a record produced by myography; same as electromyogram

133

replantation

the insertion of an organ or tissue in a new site in the body

134

spondylosyndesis

surgical creation of ankylosis between contiguous vertebrae; spinal fusion

135

total hip replacement

replacement of the hip joint with an artificial ball and socket joint, performed to relieve a chronically painful and stiff hip caused by certain clinical disorders

136

traction

the act of drawing or pulling

137

ANA

antinuclear antibodies; a laboratory serum test; ANA is associated with many diseases

138

ASO

antistreptolysin O

139

CRP

C-reactive protein

140

DJD

degenerative joint disorder

141

ORIF

open reduction internal fixation; reduction of a fracture after inclusion into the fracture site

142

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

143

RA factor

rheumatoid arthritis factor

144

SLE (LE)

systemic lupus erythematosus; lupus erythematosus

145

SR (ESR)

sedimentation rate; erythrocyte sedimentation rate