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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (50):
1

social psychology

the scientific study of how we feel about, think about, and behave toward the other people around us, and how those people influence our thoughts, feeling, and behavior

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the social situation

the people with whom we are interacting

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social cognition

the part of human thinking that helps us understand and predict the behavior of ourselves and others

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attitudes

enduring evaluations of people or things

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social norms

the accepted beliefs about what we do or what we should do in particular social situations

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stereotyping

the tendency to attribute personality characteristics to people on the basis of their external appearance or social group memberships

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prejudice

the tendency to dislike people because of their appearance or group memberships

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discrimination

negative behaviors toward others based on prejudice

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self-fulfilling prophecy

when our expect ions about the personality characteristics of others lead us to behave toward those others in ways that make those beliefs come true

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associal identity

the positive emotions that we experience as a result of our group memberships

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close relations

long term intimate and romantic relationships that we develop with another person- for instance, in a marriage

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interpersonal attraction

what makes people like, and even love each other

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self-disclosure

the tendency to communicate frequently, without fear of reprisal, and in an accepting and empathetic manner

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proximity

extent which people are physically near us

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mere exposure

tendency to prefer stimuli (including but not limited to people) that we have seen more frequently

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intimate relationship

when the partners in a relationship feel that they are close, and when they indicate the relationship is based on caring, warmth, acceptance and social support

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interdependent

in a relationship, relying on each other to meet important goals

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commitment

feelings and actions that keep partners working together to maintain the relationship

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passion

positive affect partners display towards each other

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responsiveness

people are happy, healthy, and likely to stay in relationships in which they are sure that they can trust the other person to understand, validate, and care for them

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causal attribution

the process of trying to determine the causes of people's behavior, with the goal of learning about their personalities

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person attribution

when a behavior was caused by a person

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situation attribution

when we believe a behavior

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fundamental attribution error

the common tendency to overestimate the role of person factors and overlook the impact of situations in judging others

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attitude

our relatively enduring evaluations of people and things

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persuasive communications

shit like humor, consider their goals, effective communicators, classical conditioning.

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self-monitoring

the tendency to regulate behavior to meet the demands of social situations

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self-perception

when we use our own behavior as a guide to help us determine our own thoughts and feelings

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foot-in-the-door technique

a method of persuasion in which the person is first persuaded to accept a rather minor request and then asked for a larger one after that

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cognitive dissonance

the discomfort we experience when we choose to behave in ways that we see as inappropriate

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altruism

any behavior that is designed to increase another person's welfare, particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs then

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reasons for altruism

positive moods, similarity, guilt, empathy, benefits, personal responsibility, and self presentation.

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reciprocal altruism

the principle, that, if we help other people now, those others will return the favor should we need their help in the future

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reciprocity norm

reminds us that we should follow the principles of behavioral altruism

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social responsibility norm

we should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of super payback

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diffusion of responsibility

when we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves

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agression

behavior that is intended to harm another individual

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displaced aggression

aggression directed at an object or person other than the person who caused the frustration

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catharsis

the idea that observing or engaging in less harmful aggressive action will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way

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desensitization

the tendency over time to show weaker emotional responses to emotional stimuli

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conformity

a change in beliefs or behavior that occurs as the result of the presence of the other people around us

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obedience

the tendency to conform to those in authority

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minority influence

in which a smaller number of individuals is able to influence the opinions of behaviors of the larger group

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psychological resistance

a strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform

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social facilitation

the tendency to perform tasks better or faster in the presence of others

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social inhibitions

the tendency to perform tasks worse or slower in the presence of others

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dominant response

action we are most likely to emit in any situation

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group process

the events that occur while the group is working on the task

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social loafing

a group process that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do when they are working alone.

50

illusion of group productivity

the tendency for group members to overvalue the productivity of the groups they work in