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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (34):
1

learning

the relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that is the result of experience

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conditioning

the ability to connect stimuli (the changes that occur in the environment) with responses (behaviors or other actions)

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classical conditioning

learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone) becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally produced a behavior

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unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, the stimulus that triggers a naturally occurring response

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unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the naturally occurring response that follows the unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus

in ClasC, a neutral stimulous, that, after being repeatedly presented prior to the unconditional stimulus, evokes a similar response as the unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned response

acquired response to the formally neutral stimulus

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extinction

the reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus

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spontaneous recoverty

the increase in responding to the CS following a pause after extinction

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generalization

the tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus

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discrimination

the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical

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second-order conditioning

an existing condtioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus

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phobia

a strong or irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation

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operant conditioning

learning that occurs based on the consequences of behavior, can involve learning of new actions

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Thorndike's law of effect

the principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation

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operant chambers/Skinner boxes

a structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird that contains a bar or key that the organism can press or peck to release food or water. It also contains a device to record the animal's responses

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reinforcer

any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior

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punisher

any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior

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positive/negative

whether a reinforcement was presented or removed

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positive reinforcement

strengthens a response by presenting something pleasant after the response

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negative reinforcement

strengthens a response by reducing or removing something unpleasant

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punishment

pos punishment weakens behavior by increasing punishment, neg punishment weakens it by decreasing reinforcement

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fixed-interval schedule

reinforcement occurs for the first response made after a specific amount of time has passed

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variable-interval schedule

the reinforcers appear on an interval schedule, but the timing is varied around the average interval, making the actual appearance of the reinforcer unpredictable

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variable-ratio schedule

provides reinforcers after a specific but average number of responses

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shaping

the process of guiding an organism's behavior to the desired outcome through the use of successive approximation to a final desired behavior

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primary reinforcers

stimuli that are naturally preferred or enjoyed by the organism, such as food, water, and relief from pain

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secondary reinforcers

a neutral event that has become associated with a primary reinforcer through classical conditioning

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insight

the sudden understanding of a solution to a problem

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latent learning

learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so
i.e. rats that explore a maze but only show that they can finish it it when there's an incentive to

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observational learning

learning by observing the behavior of others,

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programmed instruction

an educational tool that consists of self-teaching with the aid of a specialized textbook

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commons dilemma

a situation in which the behavior that creates the most positive outcomes for the individual may in the long term lead to negative consequences for the group as a whole

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prisoner's dilemma

a type of game which represents a social dilemma in which the goals of the individual compete with the goals of another individual (or maybe a group of individuals)